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    A new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. He landed in three places, in the third establishing a small settlement called Vinland.

    But her stand-by-your-man stance was her political statement, soothed over by her warm, matronly, self-mocking charm, which earned her enormous popularity, surpassing her ring's in public opinion polls. Retrieved 22 June 2011. High-Occupancy Vehicle lanes, called HOV lanes or carpool lanes, are designed to ease congestion on Interstate freeways around large population centers during the very start and very end of the business day, also known colloquially as Rush Hour. Servile 13,000 were interned and 230 brought to trial and executed. The from South America became dominant around 800 AD, and maintained that status until around 1200. The laws and legal systems of the U. His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a servile decline in living standards. The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty waswho disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. Thus delayed, White could not return to Roanoke until 1590. I leaped on his desk, I met off his desk. Civilizations in North America, Central America, and South America had different levels of complexity, technology, and cohesiveness. The other rules are on the web site. Retrieved 30 December 2010.

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    Not to be confused with. It is 34 kilometres 21 miles in length and up to 23 km 14 mi in width, covering an area of 432 km 2 167 sq mi. It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km 62 mi east of the and the ; therein, Barbados is east of the Windwards, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at of the. It is about 168 km 104 mi east of both the countries of and and 400 km 250 mi north-east of. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic. Its capital and largest city is. It first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese visited the island in 1536, but they left it unclaimed, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625; its men took possession of it in the name of. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an and later. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the until that trade was outlawed in , with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and with the British monarch currently Queen as hereditary. It has a population of 284,996 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island. In 1519, a map produced by the mapmaker showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of in the is very similar in name and was once named Las Barbudas by the Spanish. It is uncertain which European nation arrived first in Barbados. One lesser known source points to earlier-revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the , en route to , were the first Europeans to come upon the island. The origin is uncertain but several theories exist. The name could have arisen due to the relatively large percentage of enslaved from modern-day southeastern arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words 'Bim' and 'Bimshire' are recorded in the and. Another possible source for 'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. Greenidge father of one of the island's most famous scholars, suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of Demerara, i. Guyana of 1652 there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of 'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source suggested the followers of Byam became known as 'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Bussa led the largest slave rebellion in Barbadian history. The from South America became dominant around 800 AD, and maintained that status until around 1200. In the 13th century, the arrived from South America. The and briefly claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries. The Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from possibly displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited. Some Arawaks migrated from modern-day Guyana in the 19th century and continue to live in Barbados. In the very early years 1620—1640s the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants, mainly , and , with and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the 1650s this included a large number of prisoners-of-war, vagrants and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants. These last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by English merchants and sold into servitude in Barbados and other Caribbean islands during this period. Cultivation of tobacco, cotton, and was thus handled primarily by European indentured labour until the start of the industry in the 1640s and the growing reliance and importation of enslaved Africans. Persecuted persons of during the also settled to Barbados. From its English settlement and as Barbados's economy grew, Barbados maintained a relatively large measure of local autonomy first as a and later a. The began meeting in 1639. Among the island's earliest leading figures was the Anglo-Dutch. The killed over 4,000 people on Barbados. In 1854, a epidemic killed over 20,000 inhabitants. At emancipation in 1833, the size of the slave population was approximately 83,000. Between 1946 and 1980, Barbados's rate of population growth was diminished by one-third because of emigration to Britain. So the first colonists were actually tenants and much of the profits of their labour returned to Courten and his company. The first English ship, which had arrived on 14 May 1625, was captained by John Powell. The first settlement began on 17 February 1627, near what is now formerly Jamestown , by a group led by John Powell's younger brother, Henry, consisting of 80 settlers and 10 English labourers. The latter were young who according to some sources had been abducted, effectively making them slaves. In the period 1640—60, the West Indies attracted over two-thirds of the total number of English emigrants to the Americas. By 1650 there were 44,000 settlers in the West Indies, as compared to 12,000 on the and 23,000 in. Most English arrivals were indentured. Before the mid-1630s, they also received 5 to 10 acres of land, but after that time the island filled and there was no more free land. Around the time of Cromwell a number of rebels and criminals were also transported there. Timothy Meads of Warwickshire was one of the rebels sent to Barbados at that time, before he received compensation for servitude of 1000 acres of land in North Carolina in 1666. Parish registers from the 1650s show, for the white population, four times as many deaths as marriages. The death rate was very high. Before this, the mainstay of the infant colony's economy was the growth export of tobacco, but tobacco prices eventually fell in the 1630s, as Chesapeake production expanded. The island was not until after the execution of , when the island's government fell under the control of Royalists ironically the Governor, Philip Bell, remaining loyal to while the Barbadian , under the influence of Humphrey Walrond, supported. To try to bring the recalcitrant colony to heel, the passed an act on 3 October 1650 prohibiting trade between England and Barbados, and because the island also traded with the , further were passed prohibiting any but English vessels trading with. These acts were a precursor to the. The sent an invasion force under the command of , which arrived in October 1651. After some skirmishing, the Royalists in the House of Assembly led by surrendered. The conditions of the surrender were incorporated into the Treaty of Oistins , which was signed at the Mermaid's Inn, , on 17 January 1652. Sugar cane was visited by in 1751, in what is believed to have been his only trip outside the present day. The introduction of from in 1640 completely transformed society and the economy. Barbados eventually had one of the world's biggest sugar industries. One group instrumental in ensuring the early success of the industry were the , who had originally been expelled from the , to end up in. As the effects of the new crop increased, so did the shift in the ethnic composition of Barbados and surrounding islands. The workable sugar plantation required a large investment and a great deal of heavy labour. At first, Dutch traders supplied the equipment, financing, and enslaved Africans, in addition to transporting most of the sugar to Europe. In 1644 the population of Barbados was estimated at 30,000, of which about 800 were of African descent, with the remainder mainly of English descent. These English smallholders were eventually bought out and the island filled up with large sugar plantations worked by enslaved Africans. By 1660 there was near parity with 27,000 blacks and 26,000 whites. By 1666 at least 12,000 white smallholders had been bought out, died, or left the island. Many of the remaining whites were increasingly poor. By 1680 there were 17 slaves for every indentured servant. By 1700, there were 15,000 free whites and 50,000 enslaved Africans. Due to the increased implementation of , which created differential treatment between Africans and the white workers and ruling , the island became increasingly unattractive to. Black or slave codes were implemented in 1661, 1676, 1682, and 1688. In response to these codes, several slave rebellions were attempted or planned during this time, but none succeeded. Nevertheless, poor whites who had or acquired the means to emigrate often did so. Planters expanded their importation of enslaved Africans to cultivate sugar cane. Barbados is the easternmost island in the. It is flat in comparison to its island neighbours to the west, the. The island rises gently to the central highland region, with the high point of the nation being in the geological Scotland District 340 m 1,120 ft above sea level. In the parish of lies Barbados's capital and main city,. Other major towns scattered across the island include , in the parish of ; , in the parish of ; and , in the parish of. Geology Barbados lies on the boundary of the and the. The of the South American plate beneath the Caribbean plate scrapes sediment from the South American plate and deposits it above the subduction zone forming an. The rate of this depositing of material allows Barbados to rise at a rate of about 25 mm 1 in per 1,000 years. This subduction means the island is composed of roughly 90 m 300 ft thick, where reefs formed above the sediment. A large proportion of the island is circled by. The erosion of limestone in the northeast of the island, in the Scotland District, has resulted in the formation of various caves and. On the east coast of the island , including stacks, have been created due to the limestone composition of the area. Also notable in the island is the rocky cape known as or Pico de Tenerife, which is named after the fact that the island of in is the first land east of Barbados according to the belief of the locals. Climate The country generally experiences two seasons, one of which includes noticeably higher rainfall. Annual precipitation ranges between 1,000 and 2,300 mm 40 and 90 in. From December to May the average temperatures range from 21 to 31 °C 70 to 88 °F , while between June and November, they range from 23 to 31 °C 73 to 88 °F. On the scale, much of Barbados is regarded as a Am. Infrequent natural hazards include earthquakes, , and. Barbados is often spared the worst effects of the region's and during the rainy season. Its location in the south-east of the Caribbean region puts the country just outside the principal. On average, a major hurricane strikes about once every 26 years. The last significant hit from a hurricane to cause severe damage to Barbados was in 1955; in 2010 the island was struck by , but this caused only minor damage across the country. Environmental issues Barbados, seen from the. Barbados is susceptible to environmental pressures. As one of the world's most , the government worked during the 1990s to aggressively integrate the growing south coast of the island into the Bridgetown Sewage Treatment Plant to reduce contamination of offshore coral reefs. As of the first decade of the 21st century, a second treatment plant has been proposed along the island's west coast. Being so densely populated, Barbados has made great efforts to protect its underground. As a coral-limestone island, Barbados is highly permeable to seepage of surface water into the earth. The government has placed great emphasis on protecting the catchment areas that lead directly into the huge network of underground aquifers and streams. On occasion illegal squatters have breached these areas, and the government has removed squatters to preserve the cleanliness of the underground springs which provide the island's drinking water. The government has placed a huge emphasis on keeping Barbados clean with the aim of protecting the environment and preserving offshore coral reefs which surround the island. Many initiatives to mitigate human pressures on the coastal regions of Barbados and seas come from the Coastal Zone Management Unit CZMU. Barbados has nearly 90 kilometres 56 miles of coral reefs just offshore and two protected marine parks have been established off the west coast. Overfishing is another threat which faces Barbados. Although on the opposite side of the Atlantic, and some 4,800 kilometres 3,000 miles west of Africa, Barbados is one of many places in the American continent that experience heightened levels of from the. Some particularly intense dust episodes have been blamed partly for the impacts on the health of coral reefs surrounding Barbados or episodes, but evidence has not wholly supported the former such claim. Wildlife Barbados is host to four species of nesting turtles , , , and and has the second-largest hawksbill turtle breeding population in the Caribbean. The driving of vehicles on beaches can crush nests buried in the sand and such activity should be avoided in nesting areas. Barbados is also the host to the. The green monkey is found in West Africa from Senegal to the Volta River. It has been introduced to the Cape Verde islands off north-western Africa, and the West Indian islands of Saint Kitts, Nevis, Saint Martin, and Barbados. It was introduced to the West Indies in the late 17th century when slave trade ships travelled to the Caribbean from West Africa. People shopping in the capital Bridgetown. The 2010 national census conducted by the Barbados Statistical Service reported a resident population of 277,821, of which 133,018 were male and 144,803 were female. The life expectancy for Barbados residents as of 2011 is 74 years. The average life expectancy is 72 years for males and 77 years for females 2005. Barbados and Japan have the highest per capita occurrences of in the world. The crude birth rate is 12. The infant mortality rate is 11. Other groups in Barbados include people from the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. There are reports of a growing Indo-Bajan diaspora originating from Guyana and starting around 1990. Predominantly from southern India and Hindu states, they are growing in size but smaller than the equivalent communities in Trinidad and Guyana. In 1643, there were 37,200 whites in Barbados 86% of the population. Among White Barbadians there exists an underclass known as ; mostly the descendants of indentured labourers and prisoners imported to the island. Many additionally moved on to become the earliest settlers of modern-day and in the United States. Most if not all first arrived in the 1940s during the. Many Chinese-Bajans have the surnames Chin, Chynn or Lee, although other surnames prevail in certain areas of the island. Chinese food and culture is becoming part of everyday Bajan culture. The Muslim Arab minority among Arab Barbadian make up a small percentage of the overall minority Muslim Barbadian population. The majority of the Lebanese and Syrians arrived in Barbados through trade opportunities. Their numbers are falling due to emigration to other countries. Bridgetown is the home of , the oldest Jewish synagogue in the Americas, dating from 1654, though the current structure was erected in 1833 replacing one ruined by the hurricane of 1831. Tombstones in the neighbouring cemetery date from the 1630s. Now under the care of the Barbados National Trust, the site was deserted in 1929 but was saved and restored by the Jewish community beginning in 1986. Many small businesses in Barbados are run and operated by Muslim-Indian Bajans. Languages English is the of Barbados, and is used for communications, administration, and public services all over the island. In its capacity as the official language of the country, the standard of English tends to conform to the vocabulary, pronunciations, spellings, and conventions akin to, but not exactly the same as, those of. An , referred to locally as , is spoken by most Barbadians in everyday life, especially in informal settings. In its full-fledged form, Bajan sounds markedly different from the Standard English heard on the island. The degree of intelligibility between Bajan and general English, for the general English speaker, depends on the level of creolised vocabulary and idioms. A Bajan speaker may be completely unintelligible to an English speaker from another country. Other Christian denominations with significant followings in Barbados are the administered by , , , the and. The was the official state religion until its legal disestablishment by the Parliament of Barbados following independence. Other religions in Barbados include , , , and. Main articles: and Barbados has been an independent country since 30 November 1966. It functions as a and modelled on the British. The —Queen —is and is represented locally by the —presently. Both are advised on matters of the Barbadian state by the , who is. There are 30 representatives within the. The is the supreme law of the nation. The Attorney General heads. New Acts are passed by the Barbadian Parliament and require by the governor-general to become law. During the 1990s at the suggestion of 's , Barbados attempted a with Trinidad and Tobago and. The project stalled after the then prime minister of Barbados, , became ill and his lost the next general election. Barbados continues to share close ties with Trinidad and Tobago and with Guyana, claiming the highest number of Guyanese immigrants after the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. Political culture Barbados functions as a. The dominant political parties are the and the incumbent. Since Independence on 30 November 1966, the Democratic Labour Party DLP has governed from 1966 to 1976; 1986 to 1994; and from 2008 to 2018; and the Barbados Labour Party BLP has also governed from 1976 to 1986; 1994 to 2008; and from 2018 to present. The Democratic Labour Party government DLP held office with the then incomparable 1st Premier of Barbados became Prime Minister of Barbados, Errol Barrow from 4 December 1961 to 3 November 1966; 3 November 1966 to 9 September 1971; and from 9 September 1971 to 2 September 1976; and again from 28 May 1986 until his sudden death in office on 1 June 1987 for the then 4th Prime Minister of Barbados, Sir. Lloyd Sandiford with the Democratic Labour Party government DLP from 1 June 1987 to 20 January 1991; and from 20 January 1991 to 6 September 1994; the Barbados Labour Party government BLP held office with the then incomparable Prime Minister of Barbados, Tom Adams from 2 September 1976 to 18 June 1981; and from 18 June 1981 until his sudden death in office on 11 March 1985 for the then incomparable 3rd Prime Minister of Barbados, Sir. John with the Barbados Labour Party government BLP from 11 March 1985 to 28 May 1986; the Barbados Labour Party government BLP held power from 6 September 1994 to 20 January 1999; 20 January 1999 to 21 May 2003; and from 21 May 2003 to 15 January 2008; the Democratic Labour Party government DLP held power with the then incomparable 6th Prime Minister of Barbados, David Thompson from 15 January 2008 until his death in office on 23 October 2010 for the then 7th Prime Minister of Barbados, Freundel Stuart with the Democratic Labour Party government DLP from 23 October 2010 to 21 February 2013; and from 21 February 2013 to 24 May 2018 for the general elections for the new Barbados Labour Party government BLP. All of Barbados's Prime Ministers, except Freundel Stuart, held under the Ministry of Finance's portfolio. The Barbados Labour Party government BLP held power with the now 8th Prime Minister of Barbados, Mia Mottley from 24 May 2018 to present. Foreign relations Main article: Barbados is a full and participating member of the CARICOM , CSME , and the ACS. OAS , , and the CCJ. In 2005 the Parliament of Barbados voted on a measure replacing the UK's with the Caribbean Court of Justice based in , Trinidad and Tobago. World Trade Organisation, European Commission, CARIFORUM Barbados is an original member 1995 of the WTO and participates actively in its work. It grants at least MFN treatment to all its trading partners. As of December 2007 , Barbados is linked by an with the. The pact involves the Caribbean Forum CARIFORUM subgroup of the ACP. CARIFORUM is the only part of the wider ACP-bloc that has concluded the full regional trade-pact with the. Trade policy has also sought to protect a small number of domestic activities, mostly food production, from foreign competition, while recognising that most domestic needs are best met by imports. The Double Taxation Relief CARICOM Treaty 1994 On 6 July 1994, at the Sherbourne Conference Centre, St. Michael, Barbados, representatives of eight 8 countries signed the Double Taxation Relief CARICOM Treaties 1994. The countries which were represented were: Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago. On 19 August 1994 a representative of the Government of Guyana signed a similar treaty. European Nations In 2013, CARICOM called for European nations to pay and established an official reparations commission. Military The has roughly 600 members. Within it, 12- to 18-year-olds make up the Barbados Cadet Corps. The defence preparations of the island nation are closely tied to defence treaties with the United Kingdom, the United States, and the People's Republic of China. The is the sole law enforcement agency on the island of Barbados. Administrative divisions A proportional representation of national exports. Barbados is the 53rd in terms of GDP Gross Domestic Product per capita, has a well-developed , and a moderately high. According to the World Bank, Barbados is classified as being in its 66 top of the world. Historically, the economy of Barbados had been dependent on cultivation and related activities, but since the late 1970s and early 1980s it has diversified into the manufacturing and tourism sectors. Offshore finance and information services have become important foreign exchange earners, and there is a healthy light manufacturing sector. Since the 1990s the Barbados Government has been seen as business-friendly and economically sound. This slowed during the 2008 economic crisis. Recent government administrations have continued efforts to reduce unemployment, encourage , and privatise remaining state-owned enterprises. Unemployment was reduced to 10. However, it has since increased to 11. The economy contracted in 2001 and 2002 due to slowdowns in tourism, consumer spending and the impact of the , but rebounded in 2003 and has shown growth since 2004. Traditional trading partners include Canada, the especially , the United Kingdom and the United States. Business links and investment flows have become substantial: as of 2003 the island saw from Canada 25 billion in investment holdings, placing it as one of Canada's top five destinations for Canadian foreign direct investment FDI. Businessman of Toronto, Canada, is said to be one of Barbados's richest permanent residents. It has been reported that the year 2006 was the busiest years for building construction ever in Barbados, as the building-boom on the island entered the final stages for several multimillion-dollar commercial projects. Barbados maintains the third largest in the Caribbean region. As of 2009 , officials at the stock exchange were investigating the possibility of augmenting the local exchange with an International Securities Market ISM venture. In June 2018 the government refused to pay coupon on maturing in 2035. All Barbadian citizens are covered by. Barbados has over twenty throughout the country in addition to the main General Hospital located in Bridgetown. In 2011, the Government of Barbados signed a to lease its 22 acres 8. Under the deal, the group will use Barbados as one of its main destinations for at that facility. The Barbados is ranked close to 100%. The mainstream public education system of Barbados is fashioned after the British model. The government of Barbados spends 6. All young people in the country must attend school until age 16. Barbados has over 70 primary schools and over 20 secondary schools throughout the island. There are a number of private schools, including and the. Student enrolment at these schools represents less than 5% of the total enrolment of the public schools. Degree-level education in the country is provided by the , the Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic, and the and Open Campus of the. Barbados is also home to the , School of Medicine. Educational testing Barbados Secondary School Entrance Examination: Children who are 11 years old but under 12 years old on 1 September in the year of the examination are required to write the examination as a means of allocation to secondary school. Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate CSEC examinations are usually taken by students after five years of secondary school and mark the end of standard secondary education. The CSEC examinations are equivalent to the Ordinary Level O-Levels examinations and are targeted toward students 16 and older. Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations CAPE are taken by students who have completed their secondary education and wish to continue their studies. Students who sit for the CAPE usually possess CSEC or an equivalent certification. The CAPE is equivalent to the British Advanced Levels A-Levels , voluntary qualifications that are intended for university entrance. Main article: The culture of Barbados is a blend of West African, Creole, Indian and British cultures present in Barbados. Citizens are officially called Barbadians. The largest -like cultural event that takes place on the island is the festival, which was established in 1974. As in many other Caribbean and Latin American countries, Crop Over is an important event for many people on the island, as well as the thousands of tourists that flock to there to participate in the annual events. The festival includes musical competitions and other traditional activities, and features the majority of the island's homegrown and for the year. The male and female Barbadians who harvested the most sugarcane are crowned as the King and Queen of the crop. Crop Over gets under way at the beginning of July and ends with the costumed parade on Kadooment Day, held on the first Monday of August. Cuisine visitors centre Bajan cuisine is a mixture of , , , and influences. A typical meal consists of a main dish of meat or fish, normally marinated with a mixture of herbs and spices, hot side dishes, and one or more salads. The meal is usually served with one or more sauces. A wide variety of seafood and meats are also available. The visitors centre in Barbados claims to be the world's oldest remaining rum company, with earliest confirmed deed from 1703. Barbados is home to the , which brews Banks Beer, a , as well as Banks. Banks also brews Tiger Malt, a non-alcoholic. Peter in Barbados and aged for 90 days in Mount Gay 'Special Reserve' Rum casks. It was first brewed in 2009 and is available in certain Caricom nations. Music International , a native of Barbados. In music, born in Saint Michael is one of Barbados's best-known artists and one of the of all time, selling over 200 million records worldwide. In 2009 she was appointed as an Honorary Ambassador of Youth and Culture for Barbados by the late Prime Minister,. Public holidays Further information: Date English name Remarks 1 January 21 January A day of recognition for the Father of the Nation since 21 January 1989. March or April Friday, date varies March or April Monday, date varies 28 April A day of recognition for Barbados's national heroes since 28 April 1998. Like many other Caribbean islands, Barbados is famous for its coloured water and sandy beaches. A horse and rider at Garrison Savannah As in other Caribbean countries of British colonial heritage, is very popular on the island. The usually includes several Barbadian players. Barbados has produced many great cricketers including , , , , , , , , and. It is also played at the private ground. In golf, the , played at Royal Westmoreland Golf Club, was an annual stop on the from 2000 to 2009. In December 2006 the took place at the country's resort on the Country Club course, an 18-hole course designed by. The Barbados Golf Club is another course on the island. It has hosted the Barbados Open on several occasions. Also, the hosted the and in 2014. The presence of the trade winds along with favourable swells make the southern tip of the island an ideal location for wave sailing an extreme form of the sport of. Barbadian team The Flyin' Fish, are the 2009 World Champions. A Hino ACME Minibus B 163 in Speightstown, St. Although Barbados is about 34 km 21 mi across at its widest point, a car journey from Six Cross Roads in St. Philip south-east to North Point in St. Lucy north-central can take one and a half hours or longer due to road conditions. Barbados has half as many registered cars as citizens. These small buses can at times be crowded, as passengers are generally never turned down regardless of the number. They will usually take the more scenic routes to destinations. They generally depart from the capital or from in the northern part of the island. Including the ZRs, there are three bus systems running seven days a week though less frequently on Sundays. There are ZRs, the yellow minibuses and the blue. The Barbados Transport Board buses travel in regular bus routes and scheduled timetables across Barbados. Most routes require a connection in Bridgetown. Barbados Transport Board's headquarters are located at Kay's House, Roebuck Street, St. Michael, and the bus depots and terminals are located in the Fairchild Street Bus Terminal in Fairchild Street and the Princess Alice Bus Terminal which was formerly the Lower Green Bus Terminal in Jubilee Gardens, Bridgetown, St. Michael in Princess Alice Highway, Bridgetown, St. Michael; the Speightstown Bus Terminal in Speightstown, St. Peter; the Oistins Bus Depot in Oistins, Christ Church; and the Mangrove Bus Depot in Mangrove, St. Some hotels also provide visitors with shuttles to points of interest on the island from outside the hotel lobby. There are several locally owned and operated vehicle rental agencies in Barbados but there are no multi-national companies. The island's lone airport is the. It receives daily flights by several major airlines from points around the globe, as well as several smaller regional commercial airlines and charters. The airport serves as the main air-transportation hub for the eastern Caribbean. There was also a helicopter shuttle service, which offered air taxi services to a number of sites around the island, mainly on the West Coast tourist belt. Air and maritime traffic was regulated by the. Private Luxury Helicopter Tours were located in Spencers, Christ Church next to the Barbados Concorde Experience when it was opened in September 2007 and closed in April 2010. Bajan Helicopters were opened in April 1989 and closed in late December 2009 because of the economic crisis and recession facing Barbados. Retrieved 16 December 2013. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September 2018. Archived from on 15 October 2007. University of California Press. Archived from on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010. A temporary exhibit which examined some of the preliminary excavations conducted at the dig site at Heywoods, St. Fun 'N' Sun Publishing Inc. Retrieved 14 May 2010. Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations. Archived from PDF on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2010. Adjacent to the park, there is still a fresh water stream. This as a main reason the village was here. A hundred or so metres away is the sea and a further five hundred metres out across a lagoon was the outlying reef where the Atlantic swells broke on the coral in shallow waters. Barbados Museum and Historical Society. Prehistoric Settlements in the Caribbean: Fieldwork on Barbados, Tortola and the Cayman Islands. A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean Publishers Limited. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage. University of the West Indies Press. Retrieved 24 November 2008. A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition. Retrieved 19 February 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2016. Archived from on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017. Barbados: Just Beyond Your Imagination. Hansib Publishing Caribbean Ltd. Retrieved 2 July 2011. Barbados lies directly over the intersection of the Caribbean plate and the South American plate in a region known as a subduction zone. Beneath the ocean floor, the South American plate slowly slides below the Caribbean plate. Retrieved 10 July 2011. The Animal flower Cave is the island's lone accessible sea-cave and was discovered from the sea in 1780 by two English explorers. The cave now stands some six feet above the high tide mark even though it was formed at sea level. This is because Barbados is rising about one inch per 1,000 years, which is yet another indication of the cave's age. Archived from on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2009. BBC News, 30 October 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Archived from PDF on 2015-11-05. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2016. Archived from on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2006. Irish Migration Studies in Latin America. Center of Historical, Economical and Social Studies. Retrieved 4 July 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010. Fransman's British Nationality Law. Archived from on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2010. Jamaica Observer, 20 July 2003. Archived from on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2009. Archived from on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2014. Archived from on 4 January 2006. Retrieved 29 July 2009. Industry sources are warning, however, that while the boom will bring many jobs and much income, ordinary Barbadians hoping to undertake home construction or improvement will be hard pressed to find materials or labour, given the large number of massive commercial projects with which they will have to compete. Archived from on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2009. Archived from on 11 February 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2011. Archived from on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2009. Retrieved 25 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2015. University of the West Indies Press. Buğra 16 December 2017. Archived from on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015. Archived from on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2009. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1965. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford University Press, 2003. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972. A New World of Labor: The Development of Slavery in the British Atlantic. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. The Atlantic Slave Trade, Second Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and Carib to the Present. Revised version, New York, USA. Discovery Channel and Insight Guides; fourth edition, Singapore.