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    Buying 1776 david mccullough essay business plan online free

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    It s a no-nonsense journey with practical steps to finding clarity, defining your goals, achieving success — and celebrating your accomplishments. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. In the meantime, he was reading Milton, Virgil, Voltaire, Viscount Bolingbroke's Letters on the Study and Use of History, and copying long extracts in a literary commonplace book. The incentives for abuse were satisfied.

    Was he in fact running a one-man-show. She remained unmarried until her death, probably through a el to share any power and preferring a series of suitors. Between the two books, we should get a great picture of what I always wonder about with history: what was it like for ordinary people like us to live in those times. However, the common law approach… Slaughtering horses for human consumption in the United States started in the early 1970's. Retrieved April 11, 2011. Farms in the Carolinas also farmed sugar, rice, and indigo. There is also a manuscript by Richard Wright Procter, The Manchester Ophelia, that was published in his The Memorials of Bygone Manchester. His courageous voyage on the frigate Boston in the winter of 1778 and his later trek over the Pyrenees are exploits that few would have dared and that few readers will ever forget. Maybe I can borrow one of Harry's horses to tie it to Joanathan, the times you spoke of and the memories they invoke in all of us are well understood.

    Bunker Hill Essay Examples - The city was spread out on a large plain south of Monks mound.

    Text Only Version Please note that this text-only version, provided for ease of printing and reading, includes 23 pages and may take up to 10 minutes to print. Printing this page will print the introduction, the three essays, the list of sites, and all of the descriptions for the sites featured in the itinerary. If you would like to print a specific section, click on one of the links below, and mark the section you would like to print. This Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary features 24 places listed in the National Register of Historic Places that bring the benefits and history of conservation and landscape preservation to life. The itinerary was proposed by Ann E. Chapman and is based on her Master Project entitled Proposal for a Conservation and Landscape Planning Heritage Trail submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Regional Planning. This section also provides a bibliography. View the itinerary online or print it as a guide if you plan to visit in person. The Massachusetts Conservation itinerary, the 57th in this ongoing series, is part of the Department of the Interior, National Park Service's strategy to promote public awareness of history and the special places that reflect the nation's heritage and add to the quality of life, and to encourage visits to historic places throughout the nation. The itineraries are created by a partnership of the National Park Service; the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers; and Federal, State, and local governments and private organizations in communities, regions, and heritage areas throughout the United States. The itineraries help people everywhere learn about and plan trips to visit the amazing diversity of this country's historic places that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The National Park Service and its partners hope you enjoy this itinerary and others in the series. Nineteenth Century Trends in American Conservation Conservation thinking has evolved over centuries, often as a response to the profound land use changes that shaped the American landscape after the arrival of European colonists in the 1600s. Since that time, deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization all produced profound environmental changes that spurred conservation ideas and practices. At the national level, environmental historians have identified three major historic strands of conservation thinking and action that provided historic foundations for the contemporary environmental movement. These are utilitarian conservation natural resource management , preservationist conservation preserving scenic nature , and wildlife habitat protection. Utilitarian and preservationist conservation ideas, which developed by the first half of the 19th century, provided major, and different, arguments for a variety of large open space conservation initiatives in the second half of the 19th century, culminating in the creation of the first national and state forests. Many of the protected open spaces that we have today—and to a large extent, the arguments that we still use to conserve and protect natural places for their scenic, recreational, or habitat values—have been inherited from one or more of these three traditions. American Conservation Ideas Prior to 1870: Early Utilitarian Conservation Ideas and Practices The roots of utilitarian conservation arose from colonial agrarian traditions that viewed nature as a source of natural resources for housing, food, clothing, and income to be bartered or sold. In New England, the first, very limited, examples of natural resource management involved community or Commonwealth regulations to prevent overuse or misuse of shared resources such as meadows, pastures, swamps and woodlots. At their best, these colonial conservation ideas included a belief in democratic access to land, coupled with shared responsibility. Although colonial ordinances attempted some protection of natural resources, they were quite limited in nature. Over time, population growth, industrialization, urbanization, and a shift to a market-driven economy put increasing pressure on remaining natural resources. By the middle of the 19th century, many Eastern forests had been depleted. Fish and wildlife populations had also dropped dramatically as the results of habitat loss, over-fishing, and hunting. The settlement of the American West also set off a massive transformation of landscapes there with a rapid depletion of forests, soil erosion, and loss of wildlife that alarmed many people. While State Horticultural Associations promoted experimentation with new crops and better crop management in the first half of the century, few understood that environmental damage, such as erosion, might have permanent consequences. Early 19th Century Conservation and the Romantic Movement: Promoting New Attitudes toward Nature The idea that nature is only a commodity to be used albeit wisely was challenged in the first half of the 19th century by American Romantic and Transcendental writers like William Cullen Bryant, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau. The work of European Romantic writers and Transcendental philosophers such as Coleridge and Kant heavily influenced the American Romantic movement. European writers and artists in the 18th and early 19th centuries developed Romantic ideas to celebrate the aesthetics of nature. They recognized distinct categories of scenic nature. Pastoral nature was expected to have a soothing effect on people. Mountains, valleys, and forests were typical aspects in picturesque landscapes, which might also include signs of human presence cities could also be considered to contain picturesque elements. Picturesque landscapes were stimulating and provided a sharp contrast to urban living. Sublime landscapes were expected to elicit emotions such as awe and even terror. Both European and American scenery provided ample examples of beautiful and picturesque scenery—but the American wilderness was something that Europe, with all of its refinement and culture, lacked. American wilderness, celebrated in 19th century writing, art, and photography, soon became an icon of American identity. In the northeastern United States, these romantic depictions of nature were popularized in the mid to late nineteenth century by the works of the Hudson River School landscape painters, including Thomas Cole, Asher Durand, Frederick Edwin Church, John Frederick Kensett, and Sanford Robinson Gifford. Eastern American wilderness areas like Niagara Falls, and later western landscapes like Yosemite, the Grand Canyon, and Yellowstone, first inspired writers and artists and eventually tourists to visit these scenes as stops on the American Grand Tour. The over-commercialization of sites like Niagara Falls in response to 19th century tourism became a major concern and spurred efforts to preserve scenic wilderness areas. During roughly the same period, urban preservationist initiatives led to the creation of pastoral country parks in or near many American cities. Both of these preservationist initiatives were outgrowths of Romantic ideas of nature that led to an increasing interest on the part of the public to visit scenic natural areas. Early Ecological Conservation Ideas and the Watershed The area of land where the water that is under it or drains off of it and goes into the same place is a watershed. There are approximately two thousand watersheds in the continental United States. A watershed can be large or small, but it ties communities together with the common goal of protecting water supplies. In 1864, Vermont native George Perkins Marsh published Man and Nature; or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, which provided a sobering analysis of the consequences of deforestation. In his book, Marsh discusses the secondary consequences of clear-cutting forests and over-grazing, which includes soil erosion and watershed changes such as spring floods and summer drought, as water that was previously absorbed by forests escapes without the trees. Furthermore, he argued that there was also an adverse effect on wildlife. Fish died in response to the increased silt in the water and the temperature changes resulting from deforestation and erosion. These ideas are an example of early ecological thinking, since Marsh recognized that species existed in an interconnected web, and that changes to one part of a system such as cutting timber would affect living things in another part streams dry up or become filled with silt, and fish die. His ideas are the foundation for many of our 20th century ecological initiatives to preserve natural habitats. Today, Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park includes one of the oldest managed forests in the United States. The Conservation Movement Matures: Conservation and Preservation Initiatives in the Second Half of the 19th Century Preservation of Scenic Wilderness Areas The Romantic ideas spurred an appreciation of American wilderness as national icon. A rise in nature tourism, beginning in the 1820s and 1830s, helped create public support for the protection of the first scenic American wilderness areas as national and state parks in the 1860s and 1870s. John Muir, who arrived in the Sierras in 1868, was awestruck by the wild landscape. Muir also created a powerful political advocacy group. He founded the Sierra Club in 1892 with a mission of preserving Yosemite and other wilderness areas in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Creating National Parks Efforts to preserve spectacular western landscapes gained momentum in the last quarter of the 19th century, well before the creation of the National Park Service. In 1864, the Federal government took a step toward preserving public lands as parks for the benefit and enjoyment of the public when it gave Yosemite Valley to the State of California to use as a state park. The magnificent Yellowstone country in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho became the first federally designated national park in 1892. Yellowstone National Park provided a model for the entire world. The Federal government designated other national parks -- Sequoia, Yosemite, Mount Rainier, Crater Lake, and Glacier in the 1890's and early 1900's. By the second half of the 19th century, increasingly industrialized eastern cities were growing at a dramatic pace. The rural open spaces that once existed near cities like Boston were rapidly transforming into cities themselves in order to accommodate dramatic population increases. Based on Romantic principles, these parks took their inspiration from similar designs produced by English landscape gardeners in the 18th century. They were often several hundred acres in size bringing rural scenery to the city and featuring pastoral elements in park design to elicit soothing emotions as a needed contrast to the stresses of urban living. Design elements typically included broad meadows and natural picturesque features such as rocky outcroppings and woodlands—carefully used to screen out city buildings from view. Paths or roads provided places for strolling or horseback riding. The prototype for the country parks was the rural or garden cemetery. The first of these cemeteries to be built in the United States was in Watertown and Cambridge, Massachusetts, which dates from 1831. Rural cemeteries became such popular destinations for recreational excursions that landscape gardener Andrew Jackson Downing, William Cullen Bryant, and others lobbied for the creation of a large rural park in New York City. After winning a design competition, landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and his colleague, architect Calvert Vaux, were hired to design the large park. The park design included pastoral elements such as open meadows, lawns, and thick border vegetation. Wildlife Protection in the Late 19th Century: The First State Audubon Societies The late 19th century also produced the beginnings of a third major rationale for open space preservation: wildlife habitat protection. As the 19th century progressed, wildlife habitat was dramatically reduced by loss of habitat from deforestation and wetland filling, combined with over-hunting. New markets for wildlife made killing wildlife a financially profitable venture for hunters, who took advantage of improved transportation methods like railroads to gain access to previously inaccessible areas. The lack of legal protection for wildlife led to the slaughter of many species, some of which were hunted to extinction or near extinction. Wildlife like passenger pigeons and buffalo, which had been extremely abundant, were hunted to extinction or nearly so. In the 1880s, the millinery industry used wings, quills and feathers of birds such as woodpeckers, terns, grebes, cedar waxwings, robins and blue jays showed up on hats. A decade later, the most popular plumes were egret, heron, birds of paradise, pigeons and sea birds. Hundreds of thousands of birds were being killed each year for their feathers, which were worn in their hats Kastner, 1994; Vileisis, 1997. In response to the decline in bird populations, a number of new conservation-oriented organizations formed. George Bird Grinnell, who worked for the magazine, wrote an editorial in 1886, which established the first national Audubon society. In the first year, almost 39,000 men, women and children enlisted. In January 1896, Mrs. Hemenway heard of the decimation of a Florida heron rookery raided by hunters for the plumes, and was galvanized into action. The participants at the meeting decided that the most effective course of action would be to create a new organization, and they voted that day to establish the Massachusetts Audubon Society. The Massachusetts model caught on, and within two years, Audubon Societies had been established in 15 states. By 1901, 35 states had established Audubon groups. In 1905, National Audubon Society was formed as an umbrella organization to help coordinate state efforts. Over time, Audubon groups shifted to ecological habitat preservation. Massachusetts Audubon Society formally incorporated in 1915, and was enabled to receive and manage property. Land for the first Massachusetts Audubon Society bird sanctuary was donated by George Field in Sharon. There are currently 42 Massachusetts Audubon Sanctuaries statewide. They first lobbied for a survey of the fast-diminishing American forests. The Massachusetts Board of Agriculture hired botanist and horticulturalist Charles Sprague Sargent, director of the newly established in Boston, to prepare a survey on the status of remaining Massachusetts forests, published in an 1876 report. Soon afterwards, the Interior Department commissioned Sargent to survey the status of remaining forests in the United States. Results of the survey, Report on the Forests of North America, appear in a report in 1880 as part of the U. The report surveyed over 400 varieties of trees, noting their taxonomy, distribution, and current use. In the last decades of the 19th century, federal and state governments initiated a variety of programs to preserve forests and educate the public about the need for improved forest management practices. Congress passed legislation for the first national forests in March 1891, the Forest Reserve Act. This act allowed the president to create forest reserves by withdrawing forested lands from the public domain. New York led the country in state-level initiatives, where a coalition of scientists, sportsmen, nature lovers and businessmen in 1885 supported legislation that created the first state forest preserve in the United States, 715,000 acres of forested land in northern New York that became the Adirondacks State Park. Initiatives to create state forests in western states and New England followed within a few years, which was a trend that continued through the first several decades of the 20th century. American Conservation in the Twentieth Century At the national level, environmental historians have identified three major historic strands of conservation thinking and action that have provided historic foundations for the contemporary environmental movement. These are utilitarian conservation natural resource management , preservationist conservation preserving scenic nature , and wildlife habitat protection. While utilitarian and preservationist arguments dominated the 19th century open space conservation initiatives, wildlife habitat protection has increasingly become a motivation for protection of open space in the 20th century. Practices in the 19th century and increasingly sophisticated ecological studies in the 20th century resulted in initiatives to preserve ecological habitat throughout the 20th century. Early federal, state, and private initiatives to preserve forests begun during the 19th century continued into the 20th century. Many of the protected open spaces that we have today—and to a large extent, the arguments that we still use to conserve and protect natural places for their scenic, recreational, or habitat values—have been inherited from one or more of these three traditions. Another trend has been and continues to be the growing appreciation of the need to recognize and protect historic landscapes as part of the nation's heritage, as evidenced by the heightened interest in listing them in the National Register of Historic Places. Many are included in the National Register already. Reflecting his utilitarian conservation principles, Pinchot lobbied for the transfer of the federal forest reserves from oversight of the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture, accomplished in 1905, using the rationale that forests should be managed as a crop, with the goal of continued sustained yield cut no more timber than you replace. Resources were managed for multiple uses, including timber, wildlife, recreation, range and water. Some US Forest Service sustained yield policies such as issuance of grazing permits on forested land; cutting of old growth forests; and failure to establish adequate habitat protection for some endangered species have been controversial with conservationists concerned with habitat protection Merchant, 2002; Penick, 2001. Progressive Era Conservationists and Preservationists Split: Conflict over the Hetch Hetchy Dam In the 19th century, supporters of utilitarian conservation and preservationist initiatives often worked together on initiatives like National Forest conservation and watershed protection. Over time, however, differences in philosophy created tensions between preservationists like John Muir, who favored the preservation of scenic wilderness areas, and conservationists like Gifford Pinchot, who believed that natural resources were meant to be used. The tensions came to a head in 1909 with a proposal to dam the Tuolumne River in Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park, in order to create a water supply for the city of San Francisco. Gifford Pinchot favored damming the Valley, and John Muir and other preservationists were fiercely opposed. Ultimately, the dam was approved, and Hetch Hetchy became a reservoir in 1913. Creation of the National Park Service Support for a new federal agency to protect national parks led in 1916 to the establishment of the National Park Service. The Service was established to manage the existing national parks, monuments, and reservations that had by that time been set aside for natural, scenic, and historic values and to provide for their enjoyment so as to leave them unimpaired for future generations. The number of national parks grew to more than 350 by the end of the 20th century. Debates over preservation of wilderness areas versus development of natural resources for timber or water--and the split between utilitarian and preservationist points of view—have continued in some form throughout the 20th century, and, at the federal level, are reflected in very different management objectives of the U. Forest Service and National Park Service. These differing values also influenced state and local initiatives to save forests as timber or parkland in a number of states in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Federal Role in 20th Century Habitat Protection While many states passed legislation designed to protect migratory birds in the last years of the 19th century, there was growing awareness that, because of the vast distances birds traveled during migration, effective protection of migratory birds would require national and international protection. In 1900, the Lacey Act became the first federal legislation outlawing interstate shipment of birds killed in violation of state laws. In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt established the first Federal wildlife refuge for the protection of waterfowl, Pelican Island in Florida. In 1913, the signing of the Migratory Bird Treaty gave the Federal government primary jurisdiction over migratory birds, superseding state laws. With this law, the Federal Government became the primary protector of waterfowl. The 1920s saw important scientific studies by Frederick Lincoln, a U. Biological Service scientist, who used bird banding to identify the major migratory bird flyways in North and South America. He identified four major flyways passing across portions of the United States. This knowledge would become extremely important in later efforts to protect key migratory bird habitat in the U. Despite protective efforts, waterfowl population continued to decline in the 1930s driving some species toward extinction. By 1934, there were only 150 egrets left, and 14 whooping cranes. In 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt created a commission to study wildlife restoration. Darling later received an appointment to head the Bureau of Biological Survey. Industrialization and urbanization, with loss of wetlands habitat, were seen as major contributors to the loss of bird habitat. In some cases, federal projects for other agencies contributed to the loss of wetlands. The Civilian Conservation Corps, for example, which worked on many conservation-related projects in the Depression era, was involved in flood control and wetlands drainage programs in order to create new agricultural lands. The conflict in federal policies led to the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934. The establishment of the U. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1940, merged the Bureau of Fisheries Department of Commerce and the Bureau of Biological Survey Department of Agriculture. The new Fish and Wildlife Service became a unit of the Department of the Interior with a mandate to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, and their habitats. The Service oversees national wildlife refuges and fish hatcheries, and develops recovery plans for endangered species. The National Wildlife Refuge System has grown dramatically since 1903, since the establishment of the first National Wildlife Refuge on Pelican Island, Florida. There are now more than 530 refuges in the National Wildlife Refuge System, administered by the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, providing 93 million acres of lands and waters managed for the protection of wildlife and habitat. National Wildlife Refuge System is the most comprehensive wildlife management system in the world. The ambitious idea of trails, to be built and maintained by volunteers, was one example of 20th century initiatives, which were increasingly regional in scope, and often involved complex collaborative efforts. Open space initiatives such as state forest preservation initiatives in many states were popular with the public, but could result in disagreements over the extent of appropriate development—how easy should access to wilderness areas be? Should lodges, ski trails, and other amenities be added or did they interfere with scenic amenities or habitat? In 1935, Aldo Leopold, Benton MacKaye, Robert Mitchell and others with concerns about the growing network of highways leading to previously inaccessible locations, founded the Wilderness Society. The Wilderness Society lobbied for passage of the Federal Wilderness Act 1964 , which established the National Wilderness Preservation System. This system now has more than 95 million acres of protected land. The Nature Conservancy, founded in 1951, was organized with the goal of protecting habitat and acquired more than 1500 preserves and over 9 million acres in North America. Legacies of 1960s and 1970s Environmental Movement In the second half of the 20th century, public concerns increased over a wide range of environmental issues, many related to quality of life. In urban areas, the toxic effects of polluted air and water were growing concerns. In suburban areas, a host of issues arose, including the loss of scenic and rural character, habitat fragmentation, and the spread of harmful pesticides and other chemical pollutants. Existing conservation organizations cultivated larger memberships and new groups formed, too. Grassroots organizations often began with local issues and later broadened in their concerns. They helped to educate the public and lobbied for legislation that would address a wide range of environmental issues. Local grassroots advocacy groups formed in both urban and suburban areas throughout the country, working on a variety of environmental concerns in their own area. Grassroots efforts coalesced in into a social movement in 1970, with the holding of the first Earth Day. Communities all over the country engaged in environmental activities. The compellingly written Silent Spring drew public attention to the alarming toxic effects of DDT and some other common pesticides on both wildlife and on people. In Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold demonstrated through work on his own property the restoration of badly eroded land created healthy wildlife habitat. The science of ecology provided new understandings of requirements for wildlife habitat, and the dangers of habitat fragmentation. Growth of the science of ecology led to an increased understanding of the requirements for wildlife habitat and the dangers of habitat fragmentation. Ecological arguments were persuasively in support of both local open space preservation initiatives and for wilderness preservation of large tracts of land. Growing public support for environmental protection in the 1960s and 1970s, led to the passage of much new federal legislation, including the Clean Air Act 1963 ; the Wilderness Act 1964 ; the Water Quality Control Act 1965 ; the Wild and Scenic River Act 1968 ; the National Trails System Act 1968 ; the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA, 1969 ; and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency 1970. The loss of historic and cultural resources in communities throughout the nation, sparked the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act 1966. Grassroots environmental and open space initiatives dramatically expanded in the second half of the 20th century. Watershed associations, local and regional land trusts, and local conservation commissions continue to work to protect scenic, recreational or ecological resources, often in partnership with other organizations and with state and federal agencies. Increasingly, protected open space has become an important component in community and regional planning initiatives with a wide array of benefits. While 19th and early 20th century initiatives to preserve open space generally focused on a specific argument utilitarian conservation, scenic preservation, or habitat protection , contemporary initiatives increasingly recognize that open space serves multiple uses. The contemporary greenway movement is one example. The listing of an increasing number of historic American landscapes and properties associated with conservation in communities throughout the nation in the National Register of Historic Places reflects the growing appreciation of their importance to history, health, and quality of life in the United States. The destinations featured in this travel itinerary that are included in the National Register because of their significance to the nation's heritage are evidence of this trend. Conservation and Landscape Planning in Massachusetts The story of the National Conservation Movement intersects with the Massachusetts conservation story at several places. Much of the national story focused on preservation of large wilderness tracts of land at distant locations—usually unincorporated land in the public domain. The conservation story in Massachusetts, on the other hand, is about people interacting with nature in their own communities and the evolving conservation stewardship ideas. As popular ideas about nature have changed over time, so have the forms of conservation. Whether initially created for utilitarian or preservationist purposes, urban parks, state forests, or trail systems are playing important ecological roles in habitat protection for many types of wildlife. It is a story worth knowing. Some Massachusetts people played nationally significant roles in conservation thinking and practice making important contributions to open-space planning initiatives. Benton MacKaye, in his multiple roles as father of the Appalachian Trail, regional planner, and wilderness advocate, is another eminent Massachusetts conservationist. Robert McCullough has written that it is possible to trace the evolving environmental land ethic through community woodlands. This is also true for many other preserved lands. Massachusetts Innovators in Conservation and Landscape Planning Historians identify several Massachusetts people as innovators who have made important contributions to national conservation ideas and practices. Historic places featured in this itinerary illustrate the lives and work of several of the people who made important contributions to national conservation ideas and practices such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Charles Sprague Sargent, Harriet Hemenway, and Benton MacKaye. Emerson and Thoreau spearheaded the Transcendental movement, and their work helped catalyze a new respect for nature as a spiritual resource. He also provided important leadership in the creation of the Adirondacks State Forest System in New York, the first of its kind, and the Massachusetts State Forest and Reservation system. Three Massachusetts conservation organizations are important for their originality and their role as models for other organizations throughout the nation. Founded in 1896 by Boston residents Harriet Hemenway and Minna Hall, the Massachusetts Audubon Society was the first state Audubon Society in the country, The Appalachian Mountain Club founded in 1876 in Boston was the first permanent organization of hikers and mountaineers in the United States. The Trustees of Reservations in Massachusetts was the first land trust in the world. This itinerary also highlights landscapes designed by two outstanding landscape architects from Massachusetts, Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles Eliot. Olmsted was a founder of the profession of landscape architecture. Olmsted was also one of the first U. The work of Charles Eliot is probably the least well known outside of the field of landscape architecture, but he made major contributions to regional open space planning. Eliot worked in collaboration with journalist Sylvester Baxter to promote the idea of a regional metropolitan park system, the first of its kind in the United States. The concept required the creation of a new kind of an organization—a land trust. He worked with the Appalachian Mountain Club and community leaders from the region to develop political support for the project, create the needed legislation, and identify key properties in each community to add to the park system. Eliot 1834—1926 founded the Hancock County Trustees of Public Reservations with George Dorr 1853—1944 in 1903. Over the flowing years, The Trustees acquired over 35,000 acres of Mount Desert Island to hold for free public use. Beginning in 1916, The Trustees donated their holdings to the National Park Service. Today, this land comprises much of Acadia National Park, which became the first national park to the east of the Mississippi River. Colonial Commons as the first Protected Open Space The roots of utilitarian conservation arose from colonial agrarian traditions which viewed nature as a source of natural resources to be used for housing, food, and clothing, and as a source of income to be bartered or sold. Early New England colonial settlements were established with the expectation that most community members would meet their needs for food and shelter by establishing farms. Each landowner in the community had the use of a proportional share of uplands, meadows, swamps, and marshes. Meadows and other arable land provided land for growing crops or were used as cow commons or ox pastures. Woodlands were used for harvest of timber; swamps were a good source of cedar, used for shingles, and muck was used as fertilizer. Some communities specified town rights of way to coastal lands for the purpose of fishing or gathering salt, hay, muck, or seaweed. In many communities, town ordinances regulated the use of the Common. For example, regulations might limit the number of livestock that each owner could graze on public meadows, or the number of cedar trees that could be taken by individuals from swamps. Concerned by the consequences of a common practice in some towns of large-scale burning of woodlands to clear land for farming, a 1743 Massachusetts Bay General Law was established to regulate the burning of woodlands. As Richard Judd has noted, early colonial conservation ideas such as these illustrated a belief in democratic access to land, coupled with shared responsibility for resources Judd, 1997; McCullough, 1995; Russell, 1976. As a first effort, Boston converted the small Public Garden into a formal, landscaped park in the late 1850s. Several landscape architects, including HWS Cleveland, Robert Morris Copeland and Uriel Crocker, proposed linked park systems for Boston and published their own visions of what such a park might look like. In the first project, Olmsted worked to transform the Back Bay Fens from transformed polluted tidal flats into a wetland park planted with salt tolerant marsh grasses the first example of wetlands restoration. The second project was a collaborative effort between Olmsted and Charles Sprague Sargent, the director of the Arnold Arboretum. After Olmsted was awarded the contract to create a linked system of parks in greater Boston, he connected existing parks like Boston Common and the Public Garden via the Commonwealth Mall to the Back Bay Fens. The park system then follows the Muddy River to Jamaica Pond, the Arnold Arboretum, and eventually to Franklin Park Newton, 1971. Creating the First U. Regional Open Space System: The Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston By the final decades of the 19th century, the urban Parks Movement was well underway. Many cities throughout the country had created large country parks or park systems. Outside of Boston, however, the loss of open space was troubling. Landscape architect Charles Eliot and journalist Sylvester Baxter proposed a bold new idea for a regional park system. The scale of the project was extremely ambitious. They hoped to generate public support to acquire several thousand acres of parkland in over two dozen communities within a ten mile radius of Boston. The site was beautiful, and Eliot used it as an example of the kind of scenic place that would soon be lost to development without some kind of preservation initiative. Eliot and Baxter each lobbied for political support for the proposal. Baxter wrote a series of articles in the Boston Herald, and Eliot, a member of the Appalachian Mountain Club, solicited AMC help in crafting enabling legislation that would be need to be approved by the state in order for the new organization to exist. The legislation was passed in 1891, and The Trustees of Public Reservations now called The Trustees of Reservations was organized and chartered. It soon became a model for land trusts both in the United States and in Europe Eliot, 1902; Newton, 1971 Next, Eliot called for a meeting inviting officials from Massachusetts communities to suggest properties that might be added to the new park system. In 1893, Eliot and Baxter issued a report making final recommendations. In 1893, legislation known as the Park Act established a Metropolitan Park Commission with powers of eminent domain and funding for land acquisition in 36 Boston area communities which were to be included in the Metropolitan Park System. Soon after passage of the legislation, the Beaver Brook Reservation, home of the Waverly Oaks, became the first Reservation added to the new system. By the end of 1895, 7000 acres of forest reservations, coastal beaches, and river banks had been acquired in communities within a 10 mile radius of Boston. Massachusetts Creates a State Forest and Reservation System Another New York initiative, the outstanding model provided by the preservation of the Adirondacks in the 1880s, provided an incentive for other states in the west and in New England to pursue their own forest preservation initiatives. The effort was a timely one for the New England states. Deforestation in the mid 19th century was followed by farm abandonment in many small rural communities after 1850. Over the next several decades, the abandoned fields and pastures grew a crop of white pines. By 1900, the highly marketable trees were ready for harvest. Land speculators purchased the abandoned lands for very little money, then clear-cut the trees using portable sawmills. By 1907, timber production reached a peak of three billion board feet. The massive deforestation prompted public outcry by the scientific community, sportsmen, hiking clubs, members of the growing tourist industry and farmers led to political support for state and local initiatives to protect open space and to create state forest reservations Rivers, 1998. Inspired by the Adirondacks example, New England states began to create state forest initiatives by the mid 1890s. The Massachusetts Forestry Association MFA was established in 1898, with the goal of promoting public interest in reforestation projects. The MFA lobbied the state legislature for creation of the Office of the State Forester, established in 1904. Early projects by the first State Forester, Alfred Akerman, included public education. In 1905, the State Forester began teaching an annual class in woodlot management at Massachusetts Agricultural College, targeted to private landowners. He also advocated that the state establish a forest reserve system. The first forest reservations in Massachusetts were created prior to the Reforestation Act, however. In Massachusetts, concerns over logging on Mt. Four hundred acres of land at the summit of Mt. Greylock were donated by a group of businessmen, the Greylock Park Association. Another early state acquisition was Mt. Wachusett, created in 1899. A State Forestry Commission was empowered to acquire by purchase or otherwise, large tracts of land suitable for timber cultivation. Land for forests was to be distributed throughout the state, so they would be accessible to a large number of people. The objective was to purchase large tracts of land—ideally 1000 acres in size or larger. In addition to land purchased by the state for the creation of new state forests, some properties were also donated by individuals or groups. While most of the state forests were managed primarily for timber for timber production, it was soon found that timber production and recreation could coexist. Fishing and hunting were allowed in most of the state forests. Auto touring and camping were increasingly popular recreational activities by the 1920s. The first public campground was developed at Myles Standish State Forest in 1921. It was immediately popular, not only with Massachusetts, but people around the country. During the Depression era, the federal government established the Civilian Conservation Corps CCC to help young men out of work by giving them jobs to perform a variety of conservation-related projects throughout the country. In Massachusetts, the CCC operated between 1933 and 1942. At its peak, the program established 51 camps and employed over 100,000 men and boys. The state forest system today has been shaped in major ways by their work, which included a variety of reforestation, insect and disease control initiatives. They also constructed roads, ski trails, bridges, campgrounds, and scenic overlooks. Following the 1938 hurricane, which uprooted over half a billion feet of timber, CCC efforts salvaged 150 million feet of timber in Massachusetts. There is a bronze memorial at the Mohawk Trail State Forest headquarters in Charlemont dedicated the CCC Foster, Charles H. Hiking Clubs Create Trail Systems and Lobby for Protected Open Space Two of the earliest hiking clubs were organized in Massachusetts. The group held outings in local Lynn Woods, and built several hiking trails in the area. In Williamstown, Massachusetts, the Alpine Club was organized in 1863 by Williams College professor Albert Hopkins. The Alpine Club held outings between 1863 and 1866. The Appalachian Mountain Club AMC , which has become the largest and most influential hiking club in New England, was established in Boston in 1876 by an MIT physics professor Edward Pickering. A major organizational goal was the exploration of unascended peaks in New England. In addition to providing organized hikes, the club also produced scientific data and maps of areas they explored, and built trails and huts. AMC membership included both men and women, and the organization grew rapidly, to over 1000 members by 1898 McCullough, 1995; Waterman and Waterman, 1989. Several trail building projects in the Northeast that were completed in the first half of the 19th century. Between 1809 and1830, hiking trails were built by hiking clubs in the White Mountains and Mount Monadnock in New Hampshire; the Catskills, in New York; Mt. Ascutney in Vermont; and Mt. As regional consciousness grew among Northeastern hiking groups, new initiatives were created to link the many short, fragmented local trails into regional trail networks or long distance through-trails. The AMC initiated a number of trail building projects and trail networks in the White Mountains by the 1880s. Trail systems were also created at Mt. Monadnock in New Hampshire; Mount Desert in Maine; and Mt. These included carriage paths and roads in addition to hiking paths. Waterman and Waterman, 1989. Taylor, the headmaster of the Vermont Academy for Boys at Saxtons River. His vision was to create a long trail through the Vermont Green Mountains extending from the Massachusetts border north to Canada. In order to accomplish this bold vision, he proposed the creation of an umbrella organization, and helped establish the Green Mountain Club GMC. The GMC had many of the same organizational goals as the AMC. The organization built and maintained trails and shelters, and produced maps and guidebooks of the area. The Long Trail eventually extended 262 miles, and it took volunteers 20 years of effort to complete the Trail Waterman and Waterman, 1989. The Long Trail became a prototype that inspired many other long distance trail proposals in the Northeast. The most ambitious regional trail proposal was the 1921 proposal by regional planning visionary Benton MacKaye for an Appalachian Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Using the model established by the Vermont Long Trail, MacKaye proposed creation of an umbrella organization, the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, which could coordinate efforts of local and regional volunteers who would be responsible for building and maintaining trail segments. The Appalachian Trail eventually extended 2,100 miles, and involved the efforts of many individuals and organizations. The AT became the first National Scenic Trail in 1968, and is currently managed by a partnership with the National Park Service and local and regional organizations. The Berkshire chapter of the Appalachian Mountain Club built the Massachusetts section of the AT, and currently maintains the trail, working in partnership with the National Park Service and the Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Feeder routes such as trails, rail lines or highways would make the AT accessible to people from major urban areas. MacKaye also envisioned that some people who hiked the trail for fun might ultimately want to live nearby. Camps established along the AT route could potentially provide economic opportunity for permanent residents, who could grow food and provide meals and shelter for hikers MacKaye, 1921; Anderson, 2002; Waterman and Waterman, 1989. In the 1940s and 1950s, volunteers created a number of additional long north-south trails in Massachusetts, including the 35-mile Warner Trail, the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, and the Taconic Crest, Taconic Skyline, and South Taconic Trails. In the 1980s, the Mid-State Trail was extended south from Worcester to the Connecticut border, where it connected with another north-south trans state trail Waterman and Waterman, 1989. The Appalachian Mountain Club and other hiking organizations have provided significant political support to coalitions, which supported open space acquisition of parkland and wilderness areas. Hiking clubs were part of a coalition that supported a New York State initiative to create forest preserves in the Adirondacks and the Catskills. In 1894, the AMC obtained the right to hold tax-free mountain and forest properties, a concept that spread to a number of other public and private entities in northeastern states. Hiking clubs were also a part of a political coalition that supported passage of the Weeks Act in 1911. The legislation authorized the creation of the White Mountains National Forest, the first National Forest in the Northeast. Fox, 1998; Waterman and Waterman, 1989. Summary Massachusetts has played an important role in shaping American ideas and actions through a wide range of conservation initiatives, which span several centuries. Key Massachusetts contributions to conservation and open space planning from colonial times to the mid 20th century include the following: The first New England Common Boston Common in 1634 17th and 18th century examples of utilitarian conservation: natural resource management on the Commons The first U. Massachusetts towns and cities contain protected public lands that provide a microcosm of the American conservation movement, and landmark initiatives in local and regional open space planning. Several Massachusetts people made key contributions to American conservation thinking and action. In addition, the wide range of conservation initiatives in local communities throughout the state provides many exemplary examples of conservation activism that can serve as standards for contemporary initiatives. Massachusetts has made key contributions to conservation and landscape planning and boasts numerous examples of historic sites throughout the Commonwealth that address specific aspects of a larger story. There is still much that can be done to create a context that ties the stories and the sites together. The Massachusetts Conservation itinerary is a tool that is intended to help people learn to read the American conservation story through the protected landscapes that are featured in the itinerary. It may also encourage citizens to seek historic designations for other significant properties. Some sites, although currently protected, suffer from very limited budgets for site management and staffing. Other important sites are not protected. An increased recognition of the significance of the conservation landscapes may lead to new designations or other proposals that expand sources of funding for both site management and interpretation. The itinerary is also intended to attract tourists, and heritage tourism can provide needed economic revenue for towns and regions. Finally, reading the Massachusetts conservation landscape is just fun—a great way to spend an afternoon or a week exploring landscapes, many of them scenic, that were created as a result of centuries of creative initiatives and caring. The innovative design of the 281-acre site is the result of collaboration between landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles Sprague Sargent, director of the Arboretum and a leading proponent for national forest conservation. A reflection of the vision of its co-designers, the Arboretum became a destination on the Emerald Necklace after its founding. Harvard College established the Arboretum in 1872 through a bequest of money from whaling merchant James Arnold, hiring Sargent as director the following year. He hoped to build an international collection of woody species of North America and eastern Asia and arrange it according to the best scientific classification system of the day. Sargent also wanted the Arboretum grounds to have an aesthetically pleasing, park-like appearance. He contacted Frederick Law Olmsted in 1874 and invited him to collaborate on the project. Olmsted was initially concerned that it might not be possible to combine designs for an arboretum and a park successfully. Eventually, he became enthusiastic about the project and developed a preliminary plan for the Arboretum in 1878. The ambitious project was an expensive undertaking that took four more years before the vision became a reality. As agreed, the Arboretum staff maintains the plant collection and opens the grounds to the public, free of charge, and the city maintains the road system and provides police surveillance. Arnold Arboretum is home to over 7,000 plants representing 4,544 different types, which are organized by species and family. He brought many of his finds back to Boston. Though the Arboretum is his best-known accomplishment, Sargent was a prolific writer. His research led to a 14-volume work, Silva of North America, in which he described and illustrated all known species of trees of Canada and the continental United States. An onsite facility conducts scientific research and offers a wide variety of public education programs. The Secretary of the Interior designated the Arboretum a National Historic Landmark in 1966. The Arnold Arboretum's Visitor Center is located in the Hunnewell Building at 125 Arborway, Boston, MA. The Arboretum is designated as a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. The City of Boston Department of Parks and Recreation owns the largest portion of the Arnold Arboretum. Harvard University administers it under a 1,000-year lease. Harvard owns two areas: the Walter Street Tract and the South Street Tract. With the exception of those two areas, the Arboretum grounds are open to the public from dawn to dusk. The visitor center is open from 11:00am - 6:00pm from April through October, closed Wednesdays. November through March the visitor center is open from 12:00pm - 4:00 pm, closed Wednesdays. For more information, visit the website or website. The Arnold Arboretum is the subject of an online lesson plan,. To learn more, visit the. Boston Common Considered the world's first urban public park, Boston Common played an important role in the history of conservation, landscape architecture, military and political history, and recreation in Massachusetts. The Common and the adjoining are among the greatest amenities and most visited outdoor public spaces in Boston. The newly established Common served a combination of public, military, agricultural, and recreational purposes. In the 17th and 18th centuries, companies from Boston and surrounding communities performed military training on the Common. During the winter of 1775 and 1776, British soldiers installed artillery entrenchments on the Common, and a garrison of 1,700 soldiers remained encamped there. Other early public uses of the Common included public hangings and whippings. The Common also served agricultural purposes. The Common was a pasture for cattle from the time of its creation through the early decades of the 19th century. There were also indications the Common was a place for recreation as early as the 1660s. Gradually recreational activities began to dominate the Common. The changes in land use mirrored changes in landscape design. The first wide, tree-lined mall added along Tremont Street in 1722 is one reflection of these changes. As the city grew, livestock grazing was further and further restricted, with cows forbidden altogether in 1830 and pasture fences removed in 1836. In the 19th century as the Urban Parks Movement gained momentum, the Common began to acquire monuments, fountains, and artwork. Erected in 1897, the most famous of these memorials honors Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, a celebrated regiment of free African American soldiers who fought in the Civil War. Distinguished sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens was the designer and McKim, Mead, and White were the architects of the memorial. The 50-acre Common today is remarkably intact, due to the continued vigilance of local citizens. In the 1890s, a proposal to build a trolley line across the Common caused great public opposition that forced the examination of other transportation options, and in 1895, Boston installed the first subway in the United States. The first subway station, the Tremont Street Subway, still exists today bordering the Common along Tremont Street. Since its inception, activities held on the Common stretched beyond relaxation and recreation to include public assembly. In the 19th century, abolitionists strove to abolish slavery and the United States Army recruited soldiers to fight in the Civil War. In the 20th century, Charles Lindbergh spoke to crowds on the Common about the future of commercial aviation. Anti-Vietnam and Civil Rights rallies, including one led by Martin Luther King Jr. Today, Bostonians still gather on the Common to protest grievances and promote new ideas. Used, enjoyed, and largely protected by generations, the Boston Common exemplifies the spirit of public conservation in Massachusetts and the trend in American cities to preserve nature within growing urban areas. Today visitors can enjoy ball fields, a tot lot, and the Frog Pond where the public skates in winter and children frolic in the summer. Other additions to the Common over time include a large underground parking garage and tennis courts. Despite these changes, the Common still retains its original function for the people of Boston: a relaxing open space in a congested city. Boston Common is one of the nine parks that are part of the Emerald Necklace, a 1,100-acre chain of parks linked by parkways. Boston Common is located in Boston, MA, roughly bounded by Tremont, Beacon, Charles, Park and Boylston Sts. Boston Common is a and is part of the Park Street Historic District. Click here for the National Historic Landmark file: and. The Common is located at the Park Street T Station, accessible using the Red or Green Line. It is open to the public all day, seven days a week. Tours of the Common are self guided or as part of the Freedom Trail. For more information, call 617-357-8300, visit the Visitor Information Center located at 148 Tremont St. Boston Common is the subject of an online lesson plan,. To learn more, visit the. Boston Public Garden Dating back to 1839, the Boston Public Garden is the first public botanical garden in the United States. While it is adjacent to , the style of the Boston Public Garden is much more decorative. The garden, surrounded by a Victorian cast-iron fence, features meandering paths decorated by statues, fountains, various trees and plants, and a six-acre pond with swan boats for visitors to ride. The Boston Public Garden has changed little since the mid-19th century and offers visitors a retreat from the urban environment of the city today. Tidal marshes originally surrounded Boston, including the area west of Boston Common. In the early 19th century, Boston began a series of ambitious land filling efforts, converting marshland into valuable real estate. In 1824, after the building of Charles Street, the city purchased the newly created land west of Boston Common, reserving it for future public use. In 1839, a group of amateur horticulturalists, headed by Horace Gray, obtained permission to create a public Botanic Garden on the site. Within a few years, a greenhouse and ornamental trees and plants were added to the site. However, the project came to a halt in 1847 when Gray lost his fortune. Boston did not want to be left behind in the creation of parks. An act of the legislature ensured the permanent protection of that the former horticultural garden site as a public garden. The city appointed a special committee in 1859 to study potential park uses for the property. That same year, the city held a design competition for the site. George Meacham won the competition with his proposal for a formal garden with a pond, a curved path system, and formal flowerbeds. By 1880, the 24-acre Public Garden featured a cast-iron surrounding fence, a suspension bridge spanning the pond, and plantings that included 1,500 trees and 90,000 bedding plants. The famous John Quincy Adams Ward designed the Ether Monument, the first sculpture placed in the Public Garden in 1867. The Swan Boats, designed by Robert Paget, began operation in 1877. Over time, the Boston Public Garden closely followed the landscape design that George Meacham laid out in 1859. Ultimately, the small park would not satisfy the needs of a growing urban city. By the late 1860s, several individuals had made proposals for an extended park system in Boston. The Boston Public Garden is one of the nine parks that are part of the 1,100 acre chain of parks linked by parkways that Frederick Law Olmsted designed to connect the parks in the system. The Boston Public Garden is located in downtown Boston, MA adjacent to the Boston Common, bounded by Bacon, Charles, Boylston, and Arlington Streets. It has been designated a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. It is open to the public, and accessible by car or by subway. Contact Boston Common Visitor Information Center, located on the Common at 147 Tremont St. Call 888-733-2678 for details. For more information, visit the website. Boston Public Garden is the subject of an online lesson plan,. To learn more, visit the. The Boston Public Garden Suspension Bridge has been documented by the National Park Service's. Charles River Reservation in the Charles River Basin Historic District The creation of the Charles River Dam and the subsequent formation of the Charles River Reservation transformed the shoreline of Boston and Cambridge from muddy flats and wet marshes to acres of beautiful river scenery filled with recreational opportunities. The construction of the Charles River Dam near Boston Harbor converted the Charles River from a tidal estuary to a freshwater basin. Charles Eliot, a member of the Olmsted, Olmsted, and Eliot firm, gets the credit for establishing the Basin as the focal point of the Boston Metropolitan Park System. Today the Charles River Reservation remains a linear park encompassing 20 miles through Boston, Newton, Watertown, and Weston. The lower, middle, and upper basins span an eight-and-a-half mile stretch of land and are part of the Charles River Basin Historic District. Based on landscape and architectural designs each section within the historic district maintains a distinct character. The lower basin is highly structured as a result of its man-made design. The basin features the Harvard Bridge connecting Cambridge and Boston along with views of the State House on top of Beacon Hill. The location of this area in the heart of downtown makes it one of the most heavily trafficked open spaces in Boston and the most urban of the Metropolitan Park Commission reservations. The middle and upper sections are more natural, with a meandering river. On the upper section there are wooded banks. Each section offers a variety of activities including boating, biking, rowing, sailing, and picnicking. The grounds feature playing fields and ice skating in the winter. Concerts, including performances by the Boston Pops, movies, and special events are regularly offered at the Hatch Memorial Shell along Storrow Drive. In 2000, the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation sponsored a Master Plan for the Charles River Basin. The Master Plan included reshaping the riverbanks and moving industry away from the shoreline. The Charles River Reservation comprises a 20 mile stretch of the Charles River from downtown Boston to Riverdale Park in West Roxbury. The Reservation is a Massachusetts State Park and is managed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. A portion of the Park between the Charles River Dam and the Eliot Bridge has been designated the Charles River Basin Historic District. All of the parkways, bridges, and canals bounding the park have been listed in the National Register of Historic Places as the Charles River Reservation Parkways. For more information about the Charles River Reservation including directions, recreational opportunities, and special events visit the website. This is done chiefly by the agency of the wind water and animals. I am glad to the brink of fear. Although he could be frustrated with his fellow townsmen, and was sometimes caustic in his descriptions of them, he nevertheless participated in Concord life in a variety of ways. His experiences in and around Monument Square and the town common show his involvement in town life and interaction with his fellow Concordians. At times, his family both lived and worked on the common. After graduating from Harvard College in 1837, Thoreau taught children at the schoolhouse on the northwest end of the common. In 1845, he spent a night in the jail on the west side of the common, arrested for non-payment of taxes. A marker notes his arrest and his famous subsequent essay, Civil Disobedience. Like Emerson, Thoreau first practiced his written essays as speeches before local audiences at the Concord Lyceum in a free lecture series sponsored by the town. Many of these lectures took place in public buildings on the common, including the Masonic Hall and the Town House. Thoreau gave a total of 19 talks at the Concord Lyceum between 1838 to 1860, covering a wide range of topics. Several bore a relationship with his observations of nature in Concord, including Concord River 1845 ; White Beans and Walden Pond 1849 ; The Wild, or: Walking 1851 ; Autumn Tints 1859 ; and Wild Apples 1860. He presented his speech on forest succession excerpted above to the Middlesex Agricultural Society on September 20, 1860, in the Town House. The Concord Monument Square-Lexington Road Historic District is also rich with colonial history. Established in 1635, it was one of the first English settlements founded away from the coast. The oldest remaining building in town was constructed around that same time and is thought to have belonged to a town founder, Reverend John Jones. During the years leading up to the American Revolution, Concord was a hotspot for colonial unrest. The First Massachusetts Provincial Congress took place in 1774 on a site that the First Parish Church Meeting House occupies today; the John Hancock-led Second Congress was also held there in 1775. Shortly after the Second Congress, the British marched into Concord intent on destroying a gun powder cache, arresting Hancock and Samuel Adams in the process. Soldiers marched through Concord, down what is today Monument Street, occupying the town. The Bullet Hole House on Monument Street north of the square is named for the damage done to it during the first day of Revolutionary conflict at North Bridge on April 19, 1775. The 19th century saw the arrival of many of the historic buildings that define the historic district today. The town sponsored the construction of the Concord Town House for government use in 1851. Bronson Alcott famously voted for Abraham Lincoln at the Town House, though he did not believe in government, and Emerson used a room in the Town House as a study after his own home was damaged in a fire. The homes of the Emersons, Alcotts, and Hawthornes are located nearby. In the early 20th century, the Concord Art Association was formed and moved into the John Ball House. Concord Monument Square was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Several roads run around it, including Lexington Rd. In the square are several religious buildings, inns, and a town hall. Monument Square is a block north of the Concord Visitor Center, which is at 58 Main Street. The Visitor Center is open daily March 31 through October 28 and November 23-25 from 10:00am to 4:00pm. The center offers public restrooms and guided tours, which are available seasonally. Call ahead for group tours. For more information, visit the website. Like , Forest Hills integrates romantic and picturesque landscape design ideals with memorial architecture and monuments. Established in 1848, Forest Hills Cemetery was initially a municipal cemetery for the community of Roxbury, Massachusetts. The cemetery is adjacent to Franklin Park, part of the. Dearborn 1783-1851 spearheaded the project to develop Forest Hills Cemetery as a rural cemetery. While he was president of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Dearborn designed the Mount Auburn Cemetery landscape. By 1847, he was mayor of Roxbury, an office he held until his death in 1851. Unlike Mount Auburn and many other rural cemeteries, Forest Hills was a municipal initiative. The cemetery was open to members of every religion, social class, or ethnic group. Lots were set aside for paupers as well as those who could afford to pay. The site chosen for the new cemetery was a plot of farmland with natural attributes: a varied terrain, several ponds, and a mixture of open fields and dense woodland that made it ideal for development as a rural cemetery. The hills provided scenic views of Boston to the north, and The Blue Hills to the south. Dearborn worked with Superintendent Daniel Brims in laying out the cemetery. The resulting curved roads and naturalistic plantings were characteristic of rural cemetery design. By 1860, they established a nursery on site that allowed for the cultivation of both native and exotic plant species for the cemetery. A highlight of the completed cemetery was the four-acre Lake Hibiscus near the center of the cemetery, completed in 1861. Another interesting feature at Forest Hills was the use of local puddingstone in many of the dry laid stone retaining walls located in the older sections of the cemetery. A municipal cemetery for seven years, Forest Hills became a private nonprofit institution when the City of Boston annexed Roxbury in 1868. Today, Forest Hills Cemetery encompasses 250 acres. The cemetery is known for its unusual collection of large specimen trees, some of which the introduced to the United States. In addition to its horticultural collections, Forest Hills has an outstanding collection of art and architecture. In 1991, the Forest Hills Educational Trust was created. The Trust sponsors art exhibits, lectures, concerts, interpretive tours and other events, including a popular annual lantern festival. Forest Hills today includes a wide variety of vegetation types, ranging from natural woodland to formal Victorian flowerbeds. Of the many original small ponds on the property, only Lake Hibiscus remains. Many famous people lie buried at Forest Hills, including statesmen, soldiers, industrialists, social reformers, artists, and poets. The unusually democratic approach to interment ensured that people from all parts of society would lie in rest there together. Some of the interred who had ties with conservation and landscape architecture include Henry A. Dearborn; the Olmsted Brothers; and Alexander Agassiz, a zoologist at Harvard University. Forest Hills Cemetery islisted in the National Register of Historic Places and is located at 95 Forest Hills Ave. The cemetery grounds are open to the public every day from 7:00am to dusk. The Forest Hills Educational Trust Office and the Main Cemetery Office are open Monday-Friday from 8:30am to 4:30pm. The Main Cemetery Office is also open Saturdays from 8:30am to 1:00pm. The Forest Hills Crematory and Columbarium are open Monday through Friday from 8:30am to 4:30pm and Saturdays from 8:30 am to 1:00pm. For additional information about the Cemetery, visit the website or the website. The Trust was founded to preserve and interpret Forest Hills Cemetery and its website includes a calendar of events, a description of the site, information on exhibitions and sculpture, contact information, directions, and a calendar of events. Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site Frederick Law Olmsted, the father of American landscape architecture, created pastoral and picturesque scenery believed to cure stress caused by urban living. Before entering the profession of landscape architecture at the age of 35, Olmsted worked as a farmer, author, editor, and publisher. Olmsted headed his firm until his retirement in 1895, working on projects throughout the country. He incorporated his philosophy into designs for parks, college campuses, private estates, arboretums, and residential communities located throughout the nation. In addition to being a gifted landscape architect, Olmsted taught a new generation of planners to continue his commitment to the restorative value of the natural environment. Olmsted, and his son Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Charles Eliot and John Olmsted became partners in the firm, while many other important designers worked with the firm as well, including Percival Gallagher, James Frederick Dawson, Henry Vincent Hubbard, and Edward Clark Whiting. The firm continued a wide range of landscape design and planning projects and its portfolio includes 6,000 projects -- more than 700 public parks, 2,000 private estates, 350 subdivisions, 250 college campuses, and 100 residential institutions, to name a few. The site includes the house with its century-old office and archives with its nearly one million records of Olmsted firm designs. Fairsted also functioned as a family retreat intended for quiet pastimes and as a school specializing in environmental design for aspiring landscape architects. Built in the early 19th century, the house reveals the growing demand for Olmsted designs. The north side of the home had a number of expansions throughout the 20th century to accommodate the increasing size of the firm. The landscape has four distinct areas: the Carriage turn, the Hollow, the rock garden, and the south lawn. The carriage turn plantings include a giant hemlock and other plants that partially shelter the house from view. The Hollow, a sunken grotto, provides a place for quiet contemplation. A short trail through the rock garden has the feel of traveling through a miniature wilderness. At its end, the trail opens into the expansive vista of the south lawn, with a magnificent elm as a focal point. It is important to note that Olmsted Sr. A tour of the grounds and the home brings to life the landscape principles of Fredrick Law Olmsted. Witnessing those principles at Fairsted will enable visitors to identify and understand the characteristics that distinguish his designs. The Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation is an outgrowth of the park and has made significant contributions to the field of landscape preservation in the past twenty years as well. The Frederick Law Olmsted House, a unit of the National Park System, is located at 99 Warren St. The house and grounds have been designated a. Click here for the National Register of Historic Places file: and. The Olmsted grounds are open year-round for self-guided tours from dawn to dusk and the Olmsted Archives are available on a limited basis for use by researchers. Ranger-led guided tours of the Olmsted Historic Design Office and Landscape are available by reservation. For more information, visit the National Park Service website or call 617-566-1689. Two Frederick Law Olmsted-designed landscapes are the subject of online lesson plans: and. To learn more, visit the. Fruitlands Assembled by early preservationist Clara Endicott Sears beginning in 1843, Fruitlands Museum Historic District is a landscape and four museums in Harvard, Massachusetts, 45 miles west of Boston. The Fruitlands Museum Historic District represents the intersection of historic preservation and natural conservation. Many individuals, not just writers and philosophers, dedicated their lives to the conservation of natural landscapes and the principles described by Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and others throughout the state. The district is a testament to the variety of people who participated in the Massachusetts conservation movement. The community sought to create a new Eden by cultivating an ascetic way of life: purchasing nothing from the outside world and living solely off the land. The proximity of the community to Concord and its adherence to Transcendentalist ideas brought important visitors including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, who was especially impressed by the community. They seem to have arrived at the fact, to have got rid of the show and be serene. Fruitlands has been designated a National Historic Landmark. The Shaker Office, Native American Gallery, and Fine Art Gallery comprise the remaining buildings at Fruitlands. The Shaker Office Building came from the Shaker community in Harvard, Massachusetts. Sears moved the building to the Fruitlands when asked by the village to preserve their first office. She restored it and opened it to the public. The discovery of evidence of Native American activities in her fields led to the creation and eventual expansion of a new museum dedicated to Native American artifacts. The ideals of living in harmony with nature can be found in all four of Sears' museums and their exhibits. Native American artifacts attest to the natural lifestyle advocated by the Massachusetts Conservation Movement. The Picture Gallery, with its fine collection of Hudson River School paintings, provides direct connection to the American conservation movement. Paintings by several noted artists, including Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Edwin Church, Jasper Cropsey, Asher Brown Durand, Sanford Robinson Gifford, John Frederick Kensett, and others, convey the beauty in American wilderness that helped inspire efforts by the American public to preserve it. The Fruitlands landscape itself attests to conservation as evolving ideas of living gently on the land. Arrowheads found on the property demonstrate a time when Native Americans lived by hunting and gathering here. Preservation of the landscape as an outdoor museum combines both historic preservation and conservation. Today visitors can explore the Fruitlands landscape by following several trails through the property. Stone walls and other artifacts indicate the former uses of the property. As a large tract of preserved land, the Fruitlands landscape also provides ecological habitat for several species. The Fruitlands Museum Historic District is located about 45 minutes west of Boston at 102 Prospect Hill Rd. Fruitlands itself has been designated a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. There is a fee for admission. For information on days and hours the grounds and buildings are open, which vary seasonally, visit the website or call 978-456-3924. The is also featured in the National Park Service. Lynn Woods Historic District Lynn Woods represents a second type of colonial common. The cultural history of the area spans thousands of years. Native American sites and trails have been documented in the area, and the area retains considerable historic integrity dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. A 1693 town meeting regulation limited acceptable uses, and established a fine of 20 schillings for cutting young trees. In 1706, the Town of Lynn finally voted to divide the common land, but stipulated that community members had rights to cross the land, as long as they did not cut trees on the property. Even after division, the heavily wooded tract remained largely undeveloped through the first part of the 19th century. Some of the place names, such as Ox Pasture, Meeting House Swamp, and Great Woods Road indicate former land uses of the site. Dungeon Rock and Dungeon Pasture reportedly received their name after pirate Thomas Veal, hiding out in a cave, was buried by an earthquake in 1658, along with his treasure. Some of the features that date from the 17th and 18th centuries include stone walls, roads, woods, and pastures. Dungeon Pasture and Ox Pasture have matching sets of narrow stone-lined holes called Wolf Pits, probably designed to trap predators. In the 19th century, utilitarian uses of the woods were gradually replaced by recreational uses, eventually building support for the creation of a permanently protected municipal forest park. Formed in 1850 by Cyrus M. Tracey, the Lynn Exploring Circle was the first hiking club in New England. The group established nature trails and camps in the Lynn Woods, some of which still survive. In 1878, the Lynn Water Department created a municipal water supply in the woods by damming an existing millpond. In 1881, a group of Lynn recreationists who wanted to protect Lynn Woods as a public park formed the Trustees of the Free Public Forest. The Trustees purchased several large tracts of land under the authorization of the Massachusetts Park Act of 1882. In 1889, Frederick Law Olmsted was hired as a design consultant. By 1890, Lynn was one of only a handful of communities with protected municipal parkland. Concerned about the problem, landscape architect Charles Eliot and others mobilized to create a regional park system, the first in the United States. Eliot praised the City of Lynn both for creating its large municipal park and for its unique protected water supply. In his report to the Boston Metropolitan Park Commission in 1893, Eliot wrote: …To-day the Lynn Woods embrace some two thousand acres, and constitute the largest and most interesting, because the wildest, public domain in all New England… if we exclude the expenditures of the water board, the woods have cost the public treasury of Lynn only thirty-five thousand dollars. About one hundred public-spirited private citizens have contributed in gifts of land and money the equivalent of another thirty-five thousand dollars. In the 1920s and 1930s, several new recreational uses shaped the appearance of the park. During the Depression, WPA projects included the creation of a municipal golf course, a rustic clubhouse, a picnic grove, a bandstand, and two observation towers. After World War II, the park suffered from neglect. A growing awareness of the significance of the cultural resources of Lynn Woods led to the inclusion of Lynn Woods in the 1983 Olmsted Historic Landscape Preservation Program, spearheaded by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management. In 1989, the Friends of Lynn Woods formed as a private non-profit group providing volunteer support for ongoing maintenance. In 1996, the Lynn Woods Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Lynn Woods Historic District is located in the northern section of Lynn, MA, roughly bounded by the town of Lynnfield and Saugus, and Lynnfield St. Lynn Woods Historic District is open daily from sunrise to sunset. It offers a wide variety of opportunities for outdoor recreational activities. For directions or for information on natural and cultural history tours of the sites and trails, contact the Lynn Woods Park Ranger at 781-477-7123. For more information, visit the website or call 781-598-4000, or visit the website or call 781-593-7773. Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston The Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston, in Massachusetts, is especially noteworthy because it is the first regional park system in the United States. Considered a work of visionary regional planning, the park system comprises parks, reservations, parkways, and roads. Today, the Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston includes nearly 20,000 acres of parklands in 37 Boston area communities, encompassing seven forested reservations, three river reservations, and 10 ocean reservations, connected through 162 miles of parkways. The comprehensive planning and swift execution of the Boston metropolitan parks were acclaimed in this country and in Europe, both in the publications of the newly emerging professions of landscape architecture and planning, and through exhibits at a number of international expositions. The Massachusetts Conservation travel itinerary highlights several important early acquisitions of the Metropolitan Park System in the early 1890s that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. A number of parkways in Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, and Suffolk Counties that are part of the Metropolitan Park System also are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Internal and border roads were an integral part of the Metropolitan Park Commission plans for natural and scenic, river, and ocean reservations from the beginning. These roads connect the various park sites together into an expansive network, providing convenient, publicly accessible passage from one site to another along historic and scenic routes, and all within 10 miles of the Massachusetts State House. Many of the National Register listed parkways, including the Blue Hills Parkway, Lynn Fells Parkway, and Charles River Reservation Parkways, were designed and landscaped by famous landscape architects such as Arthur A. The Old Harbor Reservation Parkway, which was originally known as the Strandway, was in fact the final component of in Boston. The parkways can be divided up into five subtypes. Border Roads, like those in the Middlesex Fells Reservation Parkways, define the edges of the Metropolitan Park System, and were originally conceived by Olmsted landscape architect Charles Eliot as a way to clearly delineate the boundaries to the parks and reservations and make those boundaries visible to the public. Internal Roads, like those in the Stony Brook Reservation Parkways, generally follow the natural contours of the landscape, taking advantage of natural scenic elements in the parks. They serve as the circulation system within the parks and reservations. Connecting Parkways link discrete units of the parks, reservations, and parkways system. The Neponset Valley Parkway connects the Stony Brook Reservation in Boston and Dedham to the Blue Hills Reservation in Milton and Quincy. Many also have rotaries that were typically landscaped as mini parks with memorials or monuments in the center, for example the Horace James Memorial Circle in the Hammond Pond Parkway. River Parkways follow the contours of the existing rivers, like the Alewife Brook Parkway, which, naturally, follows along the Alewife Brook in Cambridge and Somerville. Similarly, Ocean Parkways follow the contours of the shoreline and are usually quite close to the edge of the shore. Winthrop Shore Drive is one of the eight ocean parkways in the system. Like all of the ocean parkways, its primary reason for existence is its connection to the adjacent beach and the ocean views. All of the parkways, no matter what their subtype, share the design characteristics of the system—the natural and scenic views and historic landscapes—but each has its own specific characteristics derived from its function and from the existing topography of the environments. In addition to their natural and scenic views, many historic roadside structures can also be seen along some of the parkways. The 1933 Metropolitan District Commission bathhouse was built along the VFW Parkway at Havey Beach. The Mystic Valley Parkway has adjacent elements that were added to the National Register of Historic Places through the Water Supply System of Metropolitan Boston Thematic Resource Area, including the Medford Pipe Bridge 1897-8 , Mystic Dam 1864 , Mystic Pumping Station 1862-4 , and Mystic Gatehouse 1862-8. The Furnace Brook Parkway features a view of the Quincy Armory 1924 , as well as a partial view of the 17th-18th century Quincy Homestead, which is a National Historic Landmark 1. The Quincy Shore Drive Parkway features views of the historic Squantum and Wollaston Yacht Clubs, both of which extend out on piers to the water. Both of these two-story wood frame buildings date to 1903 and were part of the original design for the Quincy Shore Reservation. By the final decades of the 19th century, the urban parks movement had already begun with many cities throughout the country creating large country parks or park systems. Landscape architect Charles Eliot and journalist Sylvester Baxter proposed an extremely ambitious new idea for a regional park system. They hoped to generate public support to acquire several thousand acres of parkland in over two dozen communities within a 10-mile radius of Boston. Eliot used the beautiful site as an example of the kind of scenic place that development would quickly destroy without some kind of preservation initiative. Eliot and Baxter each lobbied for political support for the proposal. The desired legislation passed in 1891, enabling the organization and charter for The Trustees of Public Reservations now called The Trustees of Reservations. The Trustees of Public Reservations became the first organization of its kind in the world and a model for land trusts both in the United States and in Europe. Next, Charles Eliot called for a meeting inviting officials from Massachusetts communities to suggest properties to be added to the new park system. Here is a community which must have pure drinking water, which yet up to this time has failed to secure even one water basin from danger of pollution… Here is a community, said to be the richest and most enlightened in America, which yet allows its finest scenes of natural beauty to be destroyed one by one, regardless of the fact that the great city of the future which is to fill this land would certainly prize every such scene exceedingly, and would gladly help to pay cost of preserving them today. Compare the two maps—one showing the opportunity, the other the miserable present result. Do not the facts speak for themselves? Is it not evident that present methods are too slow and inefficient? Can this community afford to go so slowly? Is not some form of joint or concerted action advisable at once? In 1893, legislation known as the Park Act established a Metropolitan Park Commission with powers of eminent domain and funding for acquisition of land in 36 Boston area communities, to be included in the Metropolitan Park System. Soon after passage of the legislation, the Beaver Brook Reservation, home of the Waverly Oaks, became the first Reservation added to the new system. By the end of 1895, 7,000 acres of forest reservations, coastal beaches, and river banks had been acquired in communities within a 10 mile radius of Boston. The Metropolitan Park System of Greater Boston is a system of parks, reservations, parkways, and roads located in and around Boston, MA. The areas of the Metropolitan Park System provide a wide variety of both natural and recreational uses for its visitors. For more information, visit the or its website or call 617-626-1250. Designed by the firm of Olmsted, Olmsted, and Eliot, the preserve conserves an area containing woods, wetlands and watersheds for public use. Connected by a series of border roads, or parkways, Middlesex Fells provides an urban oasis with connections leading to nearby Boston. Today, the Middlesex Fells Reservation contains several thousand acres of woodland and watershed protected from development and open to the public. The reservation surrounds Spot Pond, and its wild and rocky landscape offer visitors a variety of recreational activities. Farms were established north and west of Spot Pond and in the Sheepfold section of the Fells. Mill towns capitalized on the water power of Spot Pond for shoe and rubber mills. Throughout the late 19th century, Spot Pond and the surrounding area were popular as a destination for wealthy businessmen seeking respite from crowded urban living. The businessmen divided much of the waterfront into separate lots to build holiday retreats. The John Bottume House is the only surviving building on the property today, while the Bottume Stable survives only a short distance away. Elizur Wright first proposed the idea of a public park for metropolitan Boston surrounding Spot Pond. While Wright stirred interest among the community, Charles Eliot proposed the creation of a nonprofit corporation to hold land for the public to enjoy. Charles Eliot used the example of Middlesex Fells, with its location in five communities, to illustrate the need for a regional open space plan—no individual community could protect all of the needed land. In 1894, Middlesex Fells was one of the first properties it acquired. Over the next century, Middlesex Fells Reservation grew to include the Middlesex Fells Reservoirs and a series of structures and reservoirs the Olmsted Firm designed. The Spot Pond Reservoir and Middlesex Fells Reservoir are still used today and are known for their natural design blending with the landscape. In addition, a series of roadways that Eliot advocated adds to the landscape and connects people to open space and allows them to enjoy the park at their leisure. Those roads are still travelled by visitors to the site today and are part of the Middlesex Fells Connector Parkways. Also included within the boundary of the Middlesex Fells Reservation is the Spot Pond Archaeological District, the location of Haywardville, an abandon mill town. Middlesex Fells Reservation is located in Malden, Medford, Stoneham, Melrose, and Winchester, all a short distance away from Boston, MA. The entire area surrounding Spot Pond along with the roads and parkways bordering the park are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The historic John Bottume House, the location of the visitor center, is also listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Fells contains the Spot Pond Archaeological District, the site of Haywardville mill town, also listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Roadways connecting the reservation to other elements of the including are also listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Middlesex Fells Reservation is accessible year-round from dawn until dusk and offers its visitors a wide variety of natural and recreational activities including boating, canoeing, fishing, hiking, horseback riding, and picnicking. For more information, visit the website or call 617-626-1250 and visit the website about upcoming programs. Established in 1831 in Watertown and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the cemetery was not only designed as a resting place for the deceased, but also as an attraction and pleasure ground, with picturesque landscapes, winding paths, a variety of horticulture, and sculptural art. In the early 19th century, Dr. In 1825, Bigelow, a Boston physician and Harvard professor, invited a group of civic leaders to his house and proposed that they establish a new kind of cemetery. Located on the outskirts of the city, the new cemetery would place family burial lots in a landscaped setting filled with trees, shrubs, and flowers. They located a 72-acre farm in Watertown and Cambridge that was an ideal location for the cemetery and for an associated experimental horticultural garden. The key feature was a 125-foot central hill that provided spectacular views of Boston and Cambridge. Influenced by European naturalistic landscape design ideas, Dearborn incorporated ideas from English landscaped parks and the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris into his design for Mount Auburn Cemetery. Dearborn also established a separate experimental garden at Mount Auburn, planted with many domestic and exotic varieties of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. As news of the garden cemetery spread, horticulturalists from around the world sent gifts of seeds, including magnolia trees from Ohio and vegetable seeds from the London Horticultural Society. These gift plantings became part of both the horticultural garden and cemetery. By the end of the 1830s, Mount Auburn had several hundred trees planted. The popularity of the new cemetery grew, and new cemetery lots sold quickly. In 1835, the cemetery became a private nonprofit corporation severing its relationship with Dearborn, and the experiential garden ended. The cemetery has continued to embrace horticultural experimentation and high standards of horticultural maintenance and practices as part of its mission. Mount Auburn Cemetery has played an important role in conservation thinking by creating a designed landscape open to the public. The popularity of the design led to political support for local and regional parks and park systems. Mount Auburn has continued to incorporate conservation ideas over time. By 1870, with the growing interest in Mount Auburn as a destination for birdwatching, the Mount Auburn Trustees established a Committee on Birds that recommended plantings of trees and fruit-bearing shrubs that would attract birds. Mount Auburn Cemetery currently has a collection of over 5,500 trees, shrubs and other plants from around the world that cover the 175-acre cemetery. More than half of the trees on the grounds display labels, which give the botanic and common names, the date planted, and the native range of the species. Mount Auburn is also designated as a Massachusetts Important Bird Area. Some current conservation initiatives include planting native New England plants in the Consecration Dell area, managing the four ponds to provide good habitat for wildlife, and practicing Integrated Pest Management IPM for control of insects. Many famous Bostonians lie buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery. Some have important conservation connections, including Jacob Bigelow founder of Mount Auburn Cemetery , landscape architect Charles Eliot, activist Harriet Lawrence Hemenway founder of Massachusetts Audubon Society , Horace Gray who established a horticultural garden in the Boston Public Garden in 1838 , Asa Gray American botanist , and ornithologists William Brewster and Ludlow Griscom. Other distinguished people include Henry Cabot Lodge and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. The Secretary of the Interior designated the cemetery a National Historic Landmark in 2003. Mount Auburn Cemetery is located at 580 Mount Auburn St. It has been designated a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. The cemetery is open to the public daily year-round. The hours of operation are dependent on the amount of daylight. For more information, visit the website or call 617-547-7105. Mount Auburn Cemetery is the subject of an online lesson plan,. To learn more, visit the. Three areas of the Mount Auburn Cemetery have been documented by the National Park Service's : the , the , and. Thorow dined with us yesterday…He is a keen and delicate observer of nature—a genuine observer—which, I suspect, is almost as rare a character as even an original poet; and nature, in return for his love, seems to adopt him as her especial child, and shows him secrets which few others are allowed to witness. Another famous resident, Nathaniel Hawthorne, rented the house from 1842-1845, and lived there with his bride Sophia Peabody Hawthorne. Ralph Waldo Emerson penned the first draft of his groundbreaking short book, Nature, from the second floor study of The Old Manse; this is the birthplace of the American Transcendentalism movement. The essay, which laid the foundation of the movement, challenged a new generation to demand their own works, laws, and worship. The small book pinpointed nature as a source of spiritual truth, beauty, and symbol as well as a professional discipline. In the woods free from the stresses of urbanization, Emerson believed individuals restored their faith and reason. The publication of Nature and several subsequent essays attracted a small group of highly talented men and women to Concord including Henry David Thoreau, Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, and others who formed the leadership of American Transcendentalism. The authors found solace in the natural aesthetic of Concord, exploring local woods and rivers, ideas on nature, social justices, and connections between physical and spiritual realism. They expressed their philosophy in principled actions by writing, giving speeches, and following their own prescriptions. The American literary movement continued to flourish at The Old Manse with the arrival of Nathaniel Hawthorne, who rented the house with his bride Sophia Peabody Hawthorne. They arrived at The Old Manse on their wedding day, July 9, 1842. Thoreau also described floating past The Old Manse in his first book A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. Hawthorne made his own contributions to American nature writing in his preface to Mosses from an Old Manse, which lovingly details the pastoral beauty of The Old Manse landscape. The Old Manse had other connections with the Massachusetts conservation movement. Ornithologist William Brewster, the first president of the Massachusetts Audubon Society, owned a boathouse on the site for two years. Brewster recounted his affiliation with the boathouse in his personal journal where he described the feat of floating the boathouse downstream to a new location in 1892. During the Revolutionary War, Reverend Emerson and his family witnessed the battle of Lexington from the second floor windows. The two and one-half story home follows a center hall floor plan. On the north side of the hall are the formal parlor and dining room, while a smaller parlor and kitchen are on the south side of the home. The window panes in the dining room bear inscriptions cut by Hawthorne and his wife with her diamond ring. The second floor contains bedrooms and at the northwest corner is the study used by both Emerson and Hawthorne. In 1939, The Trustees of Reservations purchased The Old Manse along with most of its original furnishings. The Old Manse was designated a National Historic Landmark in the 1960s. The Old Manse is located at 269 Monument St. The Old Manse has been designated a. Click here to view the National Historic Landmark file: and. The Old Manse offers guided tours, walk-in tours, and pre-booked tours year round. Dates and times for these tours change seasonally. There is an admission fee to tour the house. The grounds are open seven days a week, year round from sunrise to sunset. For more information, visit The Trustees of Reservations website or call 978-369-3909. Not only does the Olmsted Park System provide various recreational outlets, but it also stands as a physical example of 19th century ideals on nature and conservation. After the Civil War, communities inspired by the creation of Central Park spearheaded initiatives to create their own large, country parks for city dwellers. In Boston, the 50-acre Boston Common and the 24-acre Public Garden provided some parkland for the city, but these small areas of open space were clearly inadequate for the growing metropolitan area. Boston already had grown so much that a single large park in the center of the city proved impossible. Rural communities surrounding Boston encountered rapid development as well, making it increasingly difficult for urban residents to reach pastoral, wooded countryside outside the city. By the late 1870s, several Boston area landscape designers had proposed versions of a Boston metropolitan park system, but ultimately Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. Instead of a single large park, Olmsted envisioned a series of smaller parks connected by parkways extending from Boston through its suburbs. The proposed park system created municipal open space by linking existing parks like Boston Common and Public Garden via Commonwealth Avenue with a variety of large and medium parks in the suburbs. The first portions of the park system planned, Back Bay Fens and the Fenway, proved the most troublesome for the Boston Park Commission. Once a tidal swamp, the Fens served as a repository for sewage and was often violently flooded. Asked to solve the problems, Olmsted created informal parkland using swamp-like vegetation that could withstand the flooding. His solution to the Back Bay Fens stands as a great achievement in engineering and landscape design. Anticipating the expansion of south Boston into more rural areas, Olmsted designed Franklin Park as a retreat for working class city dwellers who needed open park space. Even though work did not begin on Franklin Park until 1885, the space had held a place in park system designs ever since Benjamin Franklin generously bequeathed the funds to the city of Boston. The final Olmsted designed parks in the system include Back Bay Fens 1879 ; Muddy River 1881 ; Olmsted Park 1881 ; Jamaica Park 1892 ; Franklin Park 1885 ; and the Arnold Arboretum 1872 for which Charles Sprague Sargent collaborated in the design. Users of the nine parks of the Olmsted Park System can play sports, visit a zoo, ice skate, hike, and just enjoy nature and admire the views. The parks offer a wide variety of natural and recreational activities year-round. Today, visitors can still enjoy the park system as Olmsted intended when he set out his designs over 100 years ago. The Olmsted Park System is located in Boston and Brookline, MA extending from the mouth of the Muddy River south to Franklin Park. The parks are accessible by foot, car, or public transportation. For more information, visit the website or call 617-635-4505, the website or call 617-730-2088, and also visit the website or call 617-522-2700. The Olmsted Park System is the subject of an online lesson plan,. To learn more, visit the. Parts of the Olmsted Park System have been documented by the National Park Service's. Ralph Waldo Emerson House Ralph Waldo Emerson, Transcendental philosopher, poet, and lecturer, moved into this house with his wife Lidian shortly after their marriage in 1835. It was his first permanent home in the largely rural community of Concord and the place where he raised his family. In this dwelling, Emerson composed his most important written works, including the final draft of his groundbreaking essay Nature in 1836 and Self Reliance in 1841. One of his greatest strengths was to inspire others to develop their own talents. Many of his guests became important figures in the Transcendental movement in their own right, including Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Bronson Alcott, and Elizabeth Peabody. Emerson lived in the house until his death in 1882. He renovated the house, added two rooms, and expanded his property to encompass a total of nine acres. The interior of the house follows a center hall plan with two large, square rooms at either side. The house was conveniently located on the stagecoach run that brought guests directly to the door. On July 24, 1872, a fire destroyed the roof and much of the second floor. During the restoration of the home, Emerson and his family stayed at in Concord. The property maintains a rear garden sloping down the meadow to Mill Brook. The Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association was established to maintain and manage the Emerson house and property. All of the rooms remain as they were after the 1872-1873 restoration, with the exception of the study. The original contents of that room were removed to the Concord Museum, and replaced by duplicate pieces around 1930. The Ralph Waldo Emerson House is located one mile east of Concord Center at 28 Cambridge Turnpike in Concord, MA. The house has been designated a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. The Ralph Waldo Emerson House is open from mid April-October, Thursday-Sunday 10:00am to 4:30pm; Sunday 1:00pm to 4:30pm. For fee and scheduling information, call the House Director at 978-369-2236 or visit the website. The house is not handicap accessible. In 1895, the time of its acquisition, Revere Beach was a seaside resort and overdeveloped. Prior to the conservation of Revere Beach in the late 19th century, commercial and transportation development flourished. From 1839 onward, private and public buildings stood along the landward side of the dune including commercial buildings and privately owned bathhouses right on the beach itself, some extending to the high tide line. Constructed in 1875, a railroad line ran along the crest of the beach. This development obscured the natural curve of the beach and limited public access to the ocean. Landscape architect Charles Eliot, who led the project to redesign the beach, called the overdeveloped condition of Revere Beach a disgrace. In an 1896 letter to the Metropolitan Park Commission, Eliot wrote: What was it that the metropolitan district sought to secure when it purchased this costly sea-coast reservation? It was the grand and refreshing sight of the natural sea beach, with its long, simple curve, and its open view of the ocean. Nothing in the world presents a more striking contrast to the jumbled, noisy scenery of a great town; and this being the case, it seems to us that to place buildings on the beach is consciously to sacrifice the most refreshing characteristic of a sea-beach, and the most valuable element to the people is property therein. This required the removal of the railroad and all buildings between the railroad and the sea. The design included the addition of a new boulevard along with several new structures for bathing, a promenade, a bandstand, and several pavilions architect William D. Revere Beach was open to the public with temporary improvements in July 1895. During the early 20th century, Revere Beach was a popular site along the New England coast. With popularity came economic growth and the tourism industry, which led to the construction of grand hotels and the Wonderland Amusement Park close to the beach. After World War II, visitation dropped as locals moved to the suburbs and the infrastructure aged. That bath house was then demolished in the early 1990s. Revere Beach Reservation is located on Revere Beach Blvd. The Revere Beach Reservation Historic District has been designated a. Click here for the National Register of Historic Places and the National Historic Landmark registration files: and. Revere Beach Reservation is open every day from dawn to dusk. Lifeguards are on duty from late June to early September. The beach can be reached by car or by public transportation. For more information, visit the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation website or call 781-289-3020. Best known as the father of the Appalachian Trail 1921 , MacKaye also co-founded the Wilderness Society 1935 and the Regional Planning Association of America 1923. Shirley Center Historic District is a fine example of an 18th- and 19th-century rural New England town center with its civic meetinghouse core surrounded by residential buildings. Benton MacKaye was born in Stamford, Connecticut, one of six children of actor and playwright Steele MacKaye. The Shirley connection began for the MacKaye family in 1882, when they first visited cousins who owned a summer home in Shirley. In 1888, when Benton was nine years old, the family purchased their first permanent home: a cottage located a short distance from the Shirley Center Common. Why this imposing title? There I met collectors from distant lands and saw the product of their expeditions, including Peary, starting on his first voyage to the Arctic... Then and there I caught the bug. And so the scheme. I would explore the country within walking distance of my home in Shirley Center radius four miles. The search for a healthy regional balance, which included all of these elements, provided the philosophical underpinnings for his later work. MacKaye returned to Shirley Center throughout his adult life. He lived there for several long periods during lulls in government employment in the 1920s and worked on several of his creative writing projects while residing in Shirley. MacKaye died in his Shirley Center home on December 11, 1975. The Shirley Center Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. Shirley Center Historic District is located in Shirley, MA, bounded by Brown, Center, Horsepond, Parker, and Whitney Rds. Shirley Center Historic District is accessible daily although some buildings are closed to the public. For more information, visit the website or call 978-425-2600. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts is a prime example of a 19th century rural New England cemetery. Horace Cleveland, who, along with Frederick Law Olmsted, is credited with the professionalization of landscape architecture, designed the 17-acre core of the cemetery. Ralph Waldo Emerson gave a principal address at the 1855 dedication ceremony for Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. In his speech, Emerson described the establishment of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery as part of a national campaign, noting: A simultaneous movement has, in a hundred cities and towns in this country, selected some convenient piece of undulating ground with pleasant wood and waters; every family chooses its own clump of trees; and we lay the corpse in these leafy colonnades. As a community cemetery, Sleepy Hollow is also the burial site of several community members with important conservation connections. One of them, Samuel Hoar, donated the first parcel of land for what would become Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. In his 1855 dedication speech, Emerson thoughtfully reflected on the future of Sleepy Hollow, positing: …when these acorns that are falling at our feet, are oaks overshadowing our children in a remote century, this mute green bank will be full of history: the good, the wise, and the great will have left their names and virtues on the trees; heroes, poets, beauties, sanctities, benefactors, will have made the air tuneable and articulate. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery is located at 24 Court Lane and Bedford St. The cemetery is accessible daily during daylight hours. Today, Walden Pond comprises the heart of the Walden Pond State Reservation and is designated a National Historic Landmark, ensuring that visitors can enjoy the area as Thoreau once did. He recorded his observations about nature—both descriptive and philosophical—in journal entries that later became a source of material for lectures, essays, and books. Like his mentor Emerson, Thoreau looked to nature for a meaningful connection between the physical, symbolic, and spiritual worlds. In order to fully realize this connection, Thoreau decided to engage in an experiment. He would attempt to live closer to nature by moving into the woods owned by his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson—a natural setting that he loved and home of Walden Pond. There, Thoreau built a cabin near Walden Pond and moved in on July 4, 1845. He described his reflections and observations of his time at the pond in vivid detail in Walden excerpted above , a work now considered an American classic for its profound insights into living more simply and in deeper communication with nature. He also manifested the same curiosity about former human inhabitants of the area, including Native Americans, freed slaves, and Irish railroad workers. He resided a mile and a half from town center, often walking there along the Fitchburg railroad line that followed the edge of the pond. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner wrote that Thoreau wanted to make a myth for his own time—and succeeded. After his two years living in Walden Woods, Thoreau spent another seven years refining his ideas in several drafts of the manuscript that would become Walden. Walden Pond in Walden Pond State Reservation is located on Massachusetts Route 126 Walden St. The Visitors Center is located at 915 Walden St. Walden Pond has been designated a. Click here for the National Historic Landmark registration file: and. Visitors can swim, picnic, hike, canoe, rowboat, cross-country ski, or snowshoe at Walden Pond State Reservation. It is open from 5:00am to a half-hour after sunset year-round. Dana Common Dana Common is a preserved archaeological landscape reflecting the 19th century organization and land uses of a Swift River Valley town before the development of the Quabbin Reservoir in the 1930s. Although no buildings remain at Dana Common, extant foundations and cellar holes, granite steps, fragments of paving, stone fenceposts, walls, and a metal safe too big and heavy to relocate survive, all reflecting a world that is now gone. Dana Common was formerly the institutional center of the once-vibrant town of Dana. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts acquired the town of Dana along with three adjacent central Massachusetts towns—Enfield, Greenwich, and Prescott—to create the Quabbin Reservoir, which, by the mid 20th century, would become the major source of drinking water for about two million people in and around Boston. Dana was among the four towns disincorporated, leveled, and flooded by the damming of the Swift River in 1939. The Dana Common area, on the East Branch of the Swift River, was above the reservoir flow line in the watershed and so was never inundated. Dana Common is the best-preserved and most easily accessible of the former villages that made up the pre-Quabbin, Swift River Valley towns. When first settled in the mid 18th century, largely agrarian Dana was part of the towns of Hardwick and Petersham. Dana became a separate town in 1801, and at first, Dana town meetings alternated between sites in three small village settlements: Doubleday, North Dana, and, in the very south of the town, the future Dana Center. In 1842, a fourth village was annexed to the new town, Storrsville to the southeast, which suddenly made Dana Center less an outlier village and thus encouraged institution building. Dana Common also marked the intersection of five roads, which led to Barre and Petersham to the east, North Dana to the north, Greenwich to the southwest, and Hardwick to the south. There were also the Congregational Church, two cemeteries, several smaller stores and workshops, and about two dozen modest and high-style residences and barns. Beginning in the second half of the19th century, Dana was also a popular destination for summer visitors and retirees from more urban areas who were drawn to the picturesque rural village. But development at the center was brief, slowing with the arrival of the railroad at North Dana in 1873. Although a school was built next to the town hall in 1892, very little new construction occurred in the vicinity of the Common after 1870. The village that was present when preparations for the creation of the Quabbin began was physically little changed from that which had developed in the middle decades of the 19th century. Water became more urgent after several particularly dry years during World War I. After a decade of arguments and counterarguments, surveys and resurveys, the Massachusetts legislature adopted a plan that would take water from the rivers to fuel the needs of metropolitan Boston, and created the Metropolitan District Water Supply Commission to oversee the project. Some residents left town at the beginning of the discussions, quickly selling their homes and moving elsewhere. Others stayed as long as possible. The cemeteries were recorded and then emptied, with remains reinterred in the new Quabbin Cemetery in the nearby town of Ware. An important aspect of the preparations was the documentation that took place between 1927 and 1930. As part of the project, all buildings and structures were mapped, photographed, and catalogued before their removal, with the result being a remarkable record of an area that would soon be obliterated. By the end of the year, the last resident had moved away. The Swift River, diverted during the construction of the great Winsor Dam, a key component of the Quabbin, between 1935 and 1939, began to fill the reservoir in August 1939. Quabbin reached its full capacity in 1946. The Metropolitan District Water Supply Commission was abolished in 1947 and its functions transferred to the Metropolitan District Commission MDC , which would guide the management of the Quabbin for another half century. Management included planting and clearing of forest lands to control erosion and water runoff. The MDC itself would be abolished in 2003 and its functions transferred to the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation DCR. The Dana Common Historic and Archaeological District was listed in the National Register in 2013. The area today is characterized by woods, fields, brooks, stone walls, and a network of dirt and paved roads, and includes the sites of approximately thirty former buildings. The area around Dana Common is the best-preserved village site in the four towns and the most easily accessed. The cemetery site and common, as well as the sites of the former buildings, are kept open to interpret and memorialize Dana Center and the towns taken by the state. DCR manages the Quabbin Reservoir lands, which are open to the public for hiking, cycling, and fishing, and other recreational and educational activities. Dana Common remains a place whose landscape provides an evocative and moving record of its past history. Dana Common is located 1. Access is by foot or bicycle. The Quabbin Visitor Center is located at 485 Ware Road Route 9 Belchertown, MA 01007 and is open daily 9:00am until 4:30pm except for major holidays. Call for information about exhibits and programs 413-323-7221. For more information on Dana Common and on the history of the water supply system in Massachusetts, visit website. Laurel Hill Park in Main Street Historic District Located in the Main Street Historic District of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, Laurel Hill provided inspiration for the first village improvement society: the Laurel Hill Association. Laurel Hill Park, a rugged and romantic forested landscape with rock outcroppings, is a significant feature of the Main Street Historic District in Stockbridge. Laurel Hill is still a meeting ground and also a place for recreation providing its visitors with a multitude of trails and a panoramic view of Stockbridge from its summit. Local resident Mary Hopkins established the Laurel Hill Association in 1853. Traveling by horseback to contact residents of all ages, Mary gained the necessary support for her cause, and the first meeting of the Laurel Hill Association took place in 1853. The Laurel Hill Association also engaged in a number of other civic beautification projects including grooming walkways, grading streets, and renovating a local cemetery. The organization even started a tree planting campaign where supporters, both children and adults, earned membership in the Association when they agreed to plant a tree in the town and tend to it. This campaign was responsible for the planting of more than 400 trees in one year in Stockbridge. The Laurel Hill Association soon became a model for other communities all over the country. By the end of the 19th century, hundreds of similar organizations established themselves in villages, towns, and cities. Active civic involvement was a key component in all of these civic initiatives. By the late 19th century, the idea of civic beautification had merged with the movement to create parks and park systems. The civic improvement initiatives of the 19th century set the stage for more comprehensive planning initiatives in the Progressive Era. One of the first projects of the Laurel Hill Association permanently protected Laurel Hill as a public park. Laurel Hill is a wooded knoll studded with rocky outcroppings, located between the Stockbridge center and the Housatonic River. The heavily forested area includes native hemlock, white pine, and oak trees. Laurel Hill gained its name from mountain laurel, which once covered much of the hill. Laurel Hill has been a favorite community-gathering place since the early 19th century. In 1834, townspeople met on the hill to honor after his death the Marquis de Lafayette, the French aristocrat who served as a general in the American Revolutionary War. That same year, the Sedgwick family purchased the land to preserve it for public use to avoid the threat of development. The Association later donated the land to the town in 1878 as a public park, with the stipulation that it stay in its natural state. Today, a narrow, winding trail passes through the heavily forested park. At the base of a huge rock outcropping is a grassy area with a rustic stone rostrum and lectern, added in 1905 to commemorate Henry D. Sedgwick, a long-time president of the Association. Each summer, the Laurel Hill Association holds its annual meeting here, a tradition that has continued since the 19th century. Added to the summit of Laurel Hill in 1928 is the Prescott Butler Memorial, a semi-circular granite bench. Today the summit is heavily wooded, but at one time the cutting of trees on the summit provided a view to Monument Mountain. Laurel Hill Park and Main Street Historic District are located on Main, Pine, and Sergeant Sts. The Laurel Hill Park trails are open daily. Visitors can enter Laurel Hill Park from behind Plain School now the town offices , located on Main St. For more information, visit the website or call 413-298-5200 and visit the website or call 413-298-4170. Other sites within the Main Street Historic District have been documented by the National Park Service's. Mohawk Trail Originally a Native American path, the Mohawk Trail leads from the Hudson and Mohawk River Valleys in New York to the Deerfield and Connecticut River Valleys in Massachusetts. Native American peoples of the Northeast used the Mohawk Trail as a trade and travel route to the east and west. Now a designated scenic tourist route, the Mohawk Trail accommodates the changing world while still serving its visitors as a scenic path and highway across the Northeast. The Mohawk Trail State Forest surrounds the trail, providing camping, hiking, and other recreational activities for visitors. Prior to European settlement, the Mohawk and other Native American tribes utilized the trail to fish during the annual spring salmon runs up the Connecticut and Deerfield Rivers and to hunt the lush valleys surrounding the rivers. They also used the trail to make raids on their enemies. The trail also became a principal route of the French and their Native American allies during the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763. During the American Revolution, Benedict Arnold, still an American patriot at the time, traveled the trail recruiting additional troops while on the way to Fort Ticonderoga, New York, with his letter of command. After farming in the valleys declined in the late 19th century, the Mohawk Trail became a road linking western Massachusetts communities. The marketing strategy worked and the road became a popular destination almost immediately. In one day in 1915 alone, 700 cars traveled along the scenic route. During this same time, the Massachusetts state legislature approved money to create state forest lands throughout Massachusetts. The heavy tourist traffic along the Mohawk Trail made acquisition of a state forest along the Trail highly desirable. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts purchased over 5,000 acres to designate as the Mohawk Trail State Forest in 1921. A rather primitive auto camp emerged in the new state forest and became a popular destination for auto tourists from all over the country. In 1924, 1,050 auto parties from 28 different states across the country and from several Canadian provinces visited Mohawk Trail State Forest. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps CCC provided work for young, unemployed men on a variety of conservation-related projects, often to create public recreational facilities. Many of the CCC camps performed work in the Massachusetts state forest system. A CCC camp in the Mohawk Trail State Forest planted white pine trees, improved roads, built a campground, and constructed a series of log cabins for overnight stays. The popularity of the Mohawk Trail also attracted new businesses such as tourist cabins, souvenir shops, lookout towers, roadside restaurants, and filling stations. While commercial revenue attracted these businesses, some people grew concerned that overbuilding would spoil the scenic values that attracted people to the area in the first place. Conservationist Benton MacKaye wrote an article in the 1920s recommending zoning the sides of the Mohawk Trail to keep it attractive and limiting commercial development to specific sites tucked out of view. Mohawk Trail State Forest today has many sites of historic interest. The CCC built structures including cabins and campgrounds that are still there. One and a half miles of the old Indian Trail is now marked and included as part of the Mahican-Mohawk Trail, a greenway extending 100 miles from Deerfield, Massachusetts to the Hudson River Valley in New York. Mohawk Trail State Forest also has some of the tallest trees in Massachusetts, with 15 species reaching record heights, including 35 white pine trees over 140 feet in height. The Cold River Virgin Forest area, which includes 700 acres of old growth forest, is designated a National Natural Landmark. It contains what may be the only virgin hemlock-northern hardwood forest in New England with some hemlocks and sugar maples over 400 years old. The Mohawk Trail is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Visitors can still drive and hike along the road of the Mohawk Trail, visit the many shops, inns, and villages along the way, and camp, hike, fish, and picnic in the Mohawk Trail State Forest. The Mohawk Trail is located in Charlemont, Florida, and Savoy in Franklin and Berkshire Counties in Massachusetts. The Mohawk Trail scenic road is open for visitors year-round to explore the towns, villages, shops, and inns along its path. The Mohawk Trail State Forest is open sunrise to sunset year-round for hiking, fishing, picnicking, and camping. Camping is available from mid-April through mid-October and cabins are available year-round. For more information, visit the website or call 413-339-5504 and also visit the website or call 866-743-8127. Mount Greylock Summit Historic District The Mount Greylock Summit Historic District, in northwest Massachusetts, is located on the highest mountain in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts at 3,492 feet. The spectacular views from the summit have been an attraction for visitors since the 19th century. Today the reservation includes over 12,500 acres, including an 11. The isolated Mount Greylock has remained sparsely populated in recorded history. The Mahican tribe hunted in the area prior to European settlement, but there is no evidence that they ascended the summit. Once the Europeans arrived, they were slow to move to this remote section of Massachusetts. The colonials performed the first surveys of the land in 1739 and 1740. Jeremiah Wilbur owned a farm in the area northeast of Greylock known as the Notch in the late 1700s. The 1600-acre farm extended up the slopes of Greylock, and included an orchard, woodlots, and pasture. Wilbur built the first trail up the mountain, connecting his farmhouse in the valley with the farms' upper slopes. The spectacular view from the summit made the mountain an attractive tourist destination early in the 19th century. In 1800, guided by Wilbur, Timothy Dwight visited the mountain summit and described the view in his book Travels in New England and New York. Williams College faculty and students hiked on the mountain and built two observation towers on its summit in 1830 and 1841. In 1863, several Williams College and Williamstown hikers formed the Alpine Club, one of the first hiking clubs in the country. During the Romantic and Transcendental eras, several literary figures made pilgrimages to Mount Greylock and described it in their writings. William Cullen Bryant, who attended Williams College, wrote several poems about the area. The next morning, he found the landscape transformed by fog that filled the valley. A right noble custom which we of Berkshire must revive. For whether we will or no, majesty is all around us here in Berkshire, sitting as in a grand Congress of Vienna of majestical hill-tops, and eternally challenging our homage. But since the majestic mountain, Greylock—my own more immediate sovereign lord and king—hath now, for innumerable ages, been the one grand dedicatee of the earliest rays of all the Berkshire mornings, I know not how his Imperial Purple Majesty …will receive the dedication of my own poor solitary ray. Nevertheless, forasmuch as I, dwelling with my loyal neighbors, the Maples and the Beeches, in the amphitheater over which his central majesty presides, have received his most bounteous and unstinted fertilizations, it is but meet, that I here devoutly kneel, and render up my gratitude, whether, thereto, The Most Excellent Purple Majesty of Greylock benignantly incline his hoary crown or no. A modest summit house built on Mount Greylock by 1875 provided simple meals and lodging for summer visitors. Alarmed by the problem, a group of local businessmen formed the Greylock Park Association and purchased 400 acres of the summit to prevent future damage. They hoped to create an attractive tourist destination at the summit, and constructed a new, 40-foot-tall observatory and a toll road to reach it. When the business venture failed, the Greylock Park Association offered to donate the land to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for a public reservation, with the stipulation that the state would buy additional several thousand acres of land around the summit. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts built a War Memorial on the summit in 1930, and between 1933 and 1936, the Civilian Conservation Corps constructed a number of additional structures on the summit, including the rustic , built of native stone and timber. They also built roads, trails, and a campground on the Greylock reservation. Tourism was a popular draw, but also had its drawbacks. After World War II, a proposal for a large tramway to the top of the mountain led to formation of the Mount Greylock Protective Association.